The Personal Disturbance Scale (sAD): Normative data and latent structure in a large non-clinical sample

Henry, J. D., Crawford, J. R., Bedford, A., Crombie, C. and Taylor, E. P. (2002) The Personal Disturbance Scale (sAD): Normative data and latent structure in a large non-clinical sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 33 8: 1343-1360. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00017-X

Author Henry, J. D.
Crawford, J. R.
Bedford, A.
Crombie, C.
Taylor, E. P.
Title The Personal Disturbance Scale (sAD): Normative data and latent structure in a large non-clinical sample
Journal name Personality and Individual Differences   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0191-8869
Publication date 2002-12-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00017-X
Volume 33
Issue 8
Start page 1343
End page 1360
Total pages 18
Place of publication Oxford, England
Publisher Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd
Language eng
Formatted abstract
The Personal Disturbance Scale [sAD; Bedford & Foulds (1978) Delusions–Symptoms–States Inventory State of Anxiety and Depression. Windsor: NFER-Nelson] is widely used in diverse settings and yet there are unresolved issues concerning its psychometric properties and normative data for the English speaking version are limited. The sAD was administered to a large sample of the general adult population (N=758). Demographic variables (gender, age, years of education and occupational status) had only very modest influences on sAD scores. Tables are presented for conversion of raw scores on the Anxiety, Depression and Total scales to percentiles. The sAD scales possessed adequate convergent and discriminant validity, as demonstrated by their pattern of correlations with two other measures of depression and anxiety (the DASS and the HADS). Ten competing models of the latent structure of the sAD were derived from theoretical and empirical sources. These models were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. The best fitting model (CFI=0.96) had a tripartite structure, and consisted of a general factor of psychological distress/negative affectivity (all items loaded on this factor) plus orthogonal specific factors of anxiety and depression. Correlated errors specified according to previous empirical findings were permitted. The theoretical and practical implications of this latent structure are discussed.
Keyword sAD
Psychometric properties
Tripartite model
Mood disorders
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Unknown

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collection: School of Psychology Publications
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 11 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
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Created: Mon, 18 Apr 2011, 21:38:52 EST by Lucy O'Brien on behalf of School of Psychology