Aquatic toxicity of magnesium sulfate, and the influence of calcium, in very low ionic concentration water

van Dam, Rick A., Hogan, Alicia C., McCullough, Clint D., Trenfield, Melanie A., Humphrey, Chris L. and Harford, Andrew J. (2010) Aquatic toxicity of magnesium sulfate, and the influence of calcium, in very low ionic concentration water. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 29 2: 410-421. doi:10.1002/etc.56

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Author van Dam, Rick A.
Hogan, Alicia C.
McCullough, Clint D.
Trenfield, Melanie A.
Humphrey, Chris L.
Harford, Andrew J.
Title Aquatic toxicity of magnesium sulfate, and the influence of calcium, in very low ionic concentration water
Journal name Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0730-7268
1552-8618
Publication date 2010-02-01
Year available 2009
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1002/etc.56
Open Access Status
Volume 29
Issue 2
Start page 410
End page 421
Total pages 12
Place of publication Pensacola, FL, U.S.A.
Publisher Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Language eng
Formatted abstract
The toxicity of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), and the influence of calcium (Ca), were assessed in very soft freshwater (natural Magela Creek water [NMCW]) using six freshwater species (Chlorella sp., Lemna aequinoctialis, Amerianna cumingi, Moinodaphnia macleayi, Hydra viridissima, and Mogurnda mogurnda). The study involved five stages: toxicity of MgSO4 in NMCW, determination of the toxic ion, influence of Ca on Mg toxicity, toxicity of MgSO4 at an Mg:Ca mass ratio of 9:1, and derivation of water quality guideline values for Mg. The toxicity of MgSO4 was higher than previously reported, with chronic median inhibition concentration (IC50)/acute median lethal concentration (LC50) values ranging from 4 to 1,215 mg/L, as Mg. Experiments exposing the 3 most sensitive species (L. aequinoctialis, H. viridissima, and A. cumingi) to Na2SO4 and MgCl2 confirmed that Mg was the toxic ion. Additionally, Ca was shown to have an ameliorative effect on Mg toxicity. For L. aequinoctialis and H. viridissima, Mg toxicity at the IC50 concentration was eliminated at Mg:Ca (mass) ratios of ≤10:1 and ≤9:1, respectively. For A. cumingi, a 10 to 30% effect persisted at the IC50 concentration at Mg:Ca ratios <9:1. The toxicity of MgSO4 in NMCW at a constant Mg:Ca ratio of 9:1 was lower than at background Ca, with chronic IC50/acute LC50 values from 96 to 4,054 mg/L, as Mg. Water quality guideline values for Mg (to protect 99% of species) at Mg:Ca mass ratios of >9:1 and ≤9:1 were 0.8 and 2.5 mg/L, respectively. Magnesium can be toxic at concentrations approaching natural background levels, but toxicity is dependent on Ca concentrations, with exposure in very low ionic concentration, Ca-deficient waters posing the greatest risk to aquatic life.
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Keyword Magnesium
Toxicity
Calcium
Sulfate
Water quality guidelines
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ
Additional Notes Article first published online: 4 Nov 2009. Corrected by: Erratum: Erratum: Aquatic toxicity of magnesium sulfate, and the influence of calcium, in very low ionic concentration water Vol. 29, Issue 5, 1199, Article first published online: 14 Apr 2010

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2011 Collection
National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology Publications
 
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 26 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
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Created: Sat, 12 Mar 2011, 01:39:50 EST by Manjit Sanghera on behalf of National Res Centre For Environmental Toxicology