Pathophysiology, treatment, and animal and cellular models of human ischemic stroke

Woodruff, Trent M., Thundyil, John, Tang, Sung Chun, Sobey, Christopher G., Taylor, Stephen M. and Arumugam, Thiruma V. (2011) Pathophysiology, treatment, and animal and cellular models of human ischemic stroke. Molecular Neurodegeneration, 6 1: 1-19. doi:10.1186/1750-1326-6-11

Author Woodruff, Trent M.
Thundyil, John
Tang, Sung Chun
Sobey, Christopher G.
Taylor, Stephen M.
Arumugam, Thiruma V.
Title Pathophysiology, treatment, and animal and cellular models of human ischemic stroke
Journal name Molecular Neurodegeneration   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1750-1326
Publication date 2011-01-25
Year available 2011
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.1186/1750-1326-6-11
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 6
Issue 1
Start page 1
End page 19
Total pages 19
Place of publication London, U.K.
Publisher BioMed Central
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Stroke is the world's second leading cause of mortality, with a high incidence of severe morbidity in surviving victims. There are currently relatively few treatments options available to minimize tissue death following a stroke. As such, there is a pressing need to explore, at a molecular, cellular, tissue, and whole body level, the mechanisms leading to damage and death of CNS tissue following an ischemic brain event. This review explores the etiology and pathogenesis of ischemic stroke, and provides a general model of such. The pathophysiology of cerebral ischemic injury is explained, and experimental animal models of global and focal ischemic stroke, as well as in vitro cellular stroke models, are described in detail, along with different experimental strategies to analyze the injuries. In particular, the technical aspects of these stroke models are assessed and critically evaluated, along with a detailed description of the methodology of the current best-practice murine models of ischemic stroke. Finally, we review preclinical studies using different strategies in experimental models, followed by an evaluation of results of recent, and failed attempts of neuroprotection in human clinical trials. We also explore new and emerging approaches for the prevention and treatment of stroke. In this regard, we note that single-target drug therapies for stroke therapy, have thus far universally failed in clinical trials. The need to investigate new targets for stroke treatments, which have pleiotropic therapeutic effects in the brain, is explored as an alternate strategy, and some such possible targets are elaborated. Developing therapeutic treatments for ischemic stroke is an intrinsically difficult endeavour. The heterogeneity of the causes, the anatomical complexity of the brain, the practicalities of the victim receiving both timely and effective treatment, conspire against developing effective drug therapies. This should in no way be a disincentive to research, but instead, a clarion call to intensify efforts to ameliorate suffering and death from this common health catastrophe. This review aims to summarize the present experimental and clinical state-of-the arts, and to guide future research directions.
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ
Additional Notes Published 25 Jan 2011

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collections: Official 2012 Collection
School of Biomedical Sciences Publications
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 120 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 141 times in Scopus Article | Citations
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Created: Sun, 06 Feb 2011, 00:16:50 EST by Dr Thiruma V Arumugam on behalf of School of Biomedical Sciences