Understanding the operational parameters affecting NDMA formation at Advanced Water Treatment Plants

Farre, Maria Jose, Doederer, Katrin, Hearn, Laurence, Poussade, Yvan, Keller, Jurg and Gernjak, Wolfgang (2011) Understanding the operational parameters affecting NDMA formation at Advanced Water Treatment Plants. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 185 2-3: 1575-1581. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.10.090


Author Farre, Maria Jose
Doederer, Katrin
Hearn, Laurence
Poussade, Yvan
Keller, Jurg
Gernjak, Wolfgang
Title Understanding the operational parameters affecting NDMA formation at Advanced Water Treatment Plants
Journal name Journal of Hazardous Materials   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0304-3894
1873-3336
Publication date 2011-01-30
Year available 2010
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.10.090
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 185
Issue 2-3
Start page 1575
End page 1581
Total pages 7
Editor G. Lyberatos
M. F. Fingas
Place of publication The Netherlands
Publisher Elsevier
Language eng
Abstract N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) can be formed when secondary effluents are disinfected by chloramines. By means of bench scale experiments this paper investigates operational parameters than can help Advanced Water Treatment Plants (AWTPs) to reduce the formation of NDMA during the production of high quality recycled water. The formation of NDMA was monitored during a contact time of 24 h using dimethylamine as NDMA model precursor and secondary effluent from wastewater treatment plants. The three chloramine disinfection strategies tested were pre-formed and in-line formed monochloramine, and pre-formed dichloramine. Although the latter is not employed on purpose in full-scale applications, it has been suggested as the main contributing chemical generating NDMA during chloramination. After 24 h, the NDMA formation decreased in both matrices tested in the order: pre-formed dichloramine > in-line formed monochloramine >> pre-formed monochloramine. The most important parameter to consider for the inhibition of NDMA formation was the length of contact time between disinfectant and wastewater. Formation of NDMA was initially inhibited for up to 6h with concentrations consistently <10 ng/L during these early stages of disinfection, regardless of the disinfection strategy. The reduction of the contact time was implemented in Bundamba AWTP (Queensland, Australia), where NDMA concentrations were reduced by a factor of 20 by optimizing the disinfection strategy. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Formatted abstract
N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) can be formed when secondary effluents are disinfected by chloramines. By means of bench scale experiments this paper investigates operational parameters than can help Advanced Water Treatment Plants (AWTPs) to reduce the formation of NDMA during the production of high quality recycled water. The formation of NDMA was monitored during a contact time of 24. h using dimethylamine as NDMA model precursor and secondary effluent from wastewater treatment plants. The three chloramine disinfection strategies tested were pre-formed and in-line formed monochloramine, and pre-formed dichloramine. Although the latter is not employed on purpose in full-scale applications, it has been suggested as the main contributing chemical generating NDMA during chloramination. After 24. h, the NDMA formation decreased in both matrices tested in the order: pre-formed dichloramine. >. in-line formed monochloramine. » pre-formed monochloramine. The most important parameter to consider for the inhibition of NDMA formation was the length of contact time between disinfectant and wastewater. Formation of NDMA was initially inhibited for up to 6. h with concentrations consistently <10. ng/L during these early stages of disinfection, regardless of the disinfection strategy. The reduction of the contact time was implemented in Bundamba AWTP (Queensland, Australia), where NDMA concentrations were reduced by a factor of 20 by optimizing the disinfection strategy.
© 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Keyword Chloramination
Disinfection by-product
N-nitrosodimethylamine
Reverse osmosis membrane
Water recycling
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ
Additional Notes Available online : 3/11/10

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2011 Collection
Advanced Water Management Centre Publications
 
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Created: Wed, 05 Jan 2011, 22:01:09 EST by Hong Lee on behalf of Advanced Water Management Centre