Stepping stones towards linear optical quantum computing

Weinhold, Till (2010). Stepping stones towards linear optical quantum computing PhD Thesis, School of Mathematics and Physics, The University of Queensland.

       
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Author Weinhold, Till
Thesis Title Stepping stones towards linear optical quantum computing
School, Centre or Institute School of Mathematics and Physics
Institution The University of Queensland
Publication date 2010-04
Thesis type PhD Thesis
Supervisor Prof Dr. Andrew White
Assoc. Prof Dr. Geoffery Pryde
Prof. Dr. Jeremy O'Brien
Total pages 214
Total colour pages 62
Total black and white pages 152
Subjects 02 Physical Sciences
Abstract/Summary The experiments described in this thesis form an investigation into the path towards establishing the requirements of quantum computing in a linear optical system. Our qubits are polarisation encoded photons for which the basic operations of quantum computing, single qubit rotations, are a well understood problem. The difficulty lies in the interaction of photons. To achieve these we use measurement induced non-linearities. The first experiment in this thesis describes the thorough characterisation of a controlled-sign gate based on such non-linearities. The photons are provided as pairs generated through parametric down-conversion, and as such share correlations unlikely to carry over into large scale implementations of the future. En route to such larger circuits, a characterisation of the actions of the controlled-sign gate is conducted, when the input qubits have been generated independently from each other, revealing a large drop in process fidelity. To explore the cause of this degradation of the gate performance a thorough and highly accurate model of the gate is derived including the realistic description of faulty circuitry, photon loss and multi-photon emission by the source. By simulating the effects of the various noise sources individually, the heretofore largely ignored multi-photon emission is identified as the prime cause of the degraded gate performance, causing a drop in fidelity nearly three times as large as any other error source. I further draw the first comparison between the performance of an experimental gate to the error probabilities per gate derived as thresholds for fault-tolerant quantum computing. In the absence of a single vigourous threshold value, I compare the gate performance to the models that yielded the highest threshold to date as an upper bound and to the threshold of the Gremlin-model, which allows for the most general errors. Unsurprisingly this comparison reveals that the implemented gate is clearly insufficient, however just remedying the multi-photon emission error will allow this architecture to move to within striking distance of the boundary for fault-tolerant quantum computing. The utilised methodology can be applied to any gate in any architecture and can, combined with a suitable model of the noise sources, become an important guide for developments required to achieve fault tolerant quantum computing. The final experiment on the path towards linear optical quantum computing is the demonstration of a pair of basic versions of Shor's algorithm which display the essential entanglement for the algorithm. The results again highlight the need for extensive measurements to reveal the fundamental quality of the implemented algorithm, which is not accessible with limited indicative measurements. In the second part of the thesis, I describe two experiments on other forms of entanglement by extending the actions of a Fock-State filter, a filter that is capable of attenuating single photon states stronger than multi-photon states, to produce entangled states. Furthermore this device can be used in conjunction with standard wave-plates to extend the range of operations possible on the bi-photonic qutrit space, showing that this setup suffices to produce any desired qutrit state, thereby giving access to new measurement capabilities and in the process creating and proving the first entanglement between a qubit and a qutrit.
Keyword quantum information
quantum optics
Quantum computing
Linear optical quantum computing
Pulsed Parametric Down-conversion
Additional Notes 26,30,32,36,44,46-48,57,59,61,66,70-71,76-83,87-89,91,95-96,98,100,102,107-110,112-114,119,133,137,139,141,147,150,153,155-158,164-168,170-173,189,200,203-204.

 
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Created: Wed, 28 Apr 2010, 15:53:57 EST by Mr Till Weinhold on behalf of Library - Information Access Service