Removal of magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents through advanced water treatment plants

Lawrence, Michael G., Keller, Jurg and Poussade, Yvan (2010) Removal of magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents through advanced water treatment plants. Water Science and Technology, 61 3: 685-692. doi:10.2166/wst.2010.885


Author Lawrence, Michael G.
Keller, Jurg
Poussade, Yvan
Title Removal of magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents through advanced water treatment plants
Journal name Water Science and Technology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0273-1223
1996-9732
Publication date 2010-01-01
Year available 2010
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.2166/wst.2010.885
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 61
Issue 3
Start page 685
End page 692
Total pages 8
Place of publication London
Publisher IWA Publishing/Portland Press
Language eng
Abstract Stable gadolinium (Gd) complexes have been used as paramagnetic contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for over 20 years, and have recently been identified as environmental contaminants. As the rare earth elements (REE), which include Gd, are able to be measured accurately at very low concentrations (e.g. Tb is measured at 7 fmol/kg in this study) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), it is possible to determine the fate of this class of compounds during the production of purified recycled water from effluent. Coagulation and microfiltration have negligible removal, with the major removal step occurring across the reverse osmosis membrane where anthropogenic Gd (the amount of Gd attributable to MRI contrast agents) is reduced from 0.39 nmol/kg to 0.59 pmol/kg, a reduction of 99.85%. The RO concentrate has anthropogenic Gd concentrations of 2.6 nmol/kg, an increase in concentration in line with the design characteristics of the plant. The increased concentration in the RO concentrate may allow further development of anthropogenic Gd as a tracer of the fate of the RO concentrate in the environment.
Keyword Advanced water treatment
Anthropogenic gadolinium
ICP-MS
Rejection efficiency
Reverse osmosis
Rare-earth-elements
Anthropogenic Gadolinium
River Waters
Australia
Queensland
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2011 Collection
Advanced Water Management Centre Publications
 
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Created: Sun, 28 Feb 2010, 10:00:21 EST