Occupational and environmental hazard assessments for the isolation, purification and toxicity testing of cyanobacterial toxins

Stewart, Ian, Carmichael, Wayne W., Sadler, Ross, McGregor, Glenn B., Reardon, Karen, Eaglesham, Geoffrey K., Wickramasinghe, Wasantha A., Seawright, Alan A. and Shaw, Glen R. (2009) Occupational and environmental hazard assessments for the isolation, purification and toxicity testing of cyanobacterial toxins. Environmental Health, 8 52: 1-12. doi:10.1186/1476-069X-8-52


Author Stewart, Ian
Carmichael, Wayne W.
Sadler, Ross
McGregor, Glenn B.
Reardon, Karen
Eaglesham, Geoffrey K.
Wickramasinghe, Wasantha A.
Seawright, Alan A.
Shaw, Glen R.
Title Occupational and environmental hazard assessments for the isolation, purification and toxicity testing of cyanobacterial toxins
Journal name Environmental Health
ISSN 1476-069X
Publication date 2009-11-19
Year available 2009
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.1186/1476-069X-8-52
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 8
Issue 52
Start page 1
End page 12
Total pages 12
Place of publication London, U.K
Publisher BioMed Central
Language eng
Subject 111506 Toxicology (incl.Clinical Toxicology)
1115 Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Abstract Cyanobacteria can produce groups of structurally and functionally unrelated but highly potent toxins. Cyanotoxins are used in multiple research endeavours, either for direct investigation of their toxicologic properties, or as functional analogues for various biochemical and physiological processes. This paper presents occupational safety guidelines and recommendations for personnel working in field, laboratory or industrial settings to produce and use purified cyanotoxins and toxic cyanobacteria, from bulk harvesting of bloom material, mass culture of laboratory isolates, through routine extraction, isolation and purification. Oral, inhalational, dermal and parenteral routes are all potential occupational exposure pathways during the various stages of cyanotoxin production and application. Investigation of toxicologic or pharmacologic properties using in vivo models may present specific risks if radiolabelled cyanotoxins are employed, and the potential for occupational exposure via the dermal route is heightened with the use of organic solvents as vehicles. Inter- and intra-national transport of living cyanobacteria for research purposes risks establishing feral microalgal populations, so disinfection of culture equipment and destruction of cells by autoclaving, incineration and/or chlorination is recommended in order to prevent viable cyanobacteria from escaping research or production facilities.
Formatted abstract
Cyanobacteria can produce groups of structurally and functionally unrelated but highly potent toxins. Cyanotoxins are used in multiple research endeavours, either for direct investigation of their toxicologic properties, or as functional analogues for various biochemical and physiological processes. This paper presents occupational safety guidelines and recommendations for personnel working in field, laboratory or industrial settings to produce and use purified cyanotoxins and toxic cyanobacteria, from bulk harvesting of bloom material, mass culture of laboratory isolates, through routine extraction, isolation and purification. Oral, inhalational, dermal and parenteral routes are all potential occupational exposure pathways during the various stages of cyanotoxin production and application. Investigation of toxicologic or pharmacologic properties using in vivo models may present specific risks if radiolabelled cyanotoxins are employed, and the potential for occupational exposure via the dermal route is heightened with the use of organic solvents as vehicles. Inter- and intra-national transport of living cyanobacteria for research purposes risks establishing feral microalgal populations, so disinfection of culture equipment and destruction of cells by autoclaving, incineration and/or chlorination is recommended in order to prevent viable cyanobacteria from escaping research or production facilities.
Keyword FRESH-WATER CYANOBACTERIA
MICROCYSTIN-LR
HUMAN HEALTH
RECREATIONAL EXPOSURE
SWALLOWING REFLEX
WORKGROUP REPORT
ANATOXIN-A
RED TIDE
CYLINDROSPERMOPSIN
CYANOTOXINS
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Grant ID RSS07-002
Institutional Status Unknown

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collection: National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology Publications
 
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Created: Sun, 13 Dec 2009, 10:06:20 EST