Essential and Nonessential Genes of Bovine Herpesvirus-1

Karl Robinson (2009). Essential and Nonessential Genes of Bovine Herpesvirus-1 PhD Thesis, School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland.

       
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Author Karl Robinson
Thesis Title Essential and Nonessential Genes of Bovine Herpesvirus-1
School, Centre or Institute School of Veterinary Science
Institution The University of Queensland
Publication date 2009-03-01
Thesis type PhD Thesis
Total pages 227
Total colour pages 30
Total black and white pages 197
Subjects 07 Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences
Abstract/Summary Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) is an important pathogen of cattle associated with respiratory and reproductive disease and is the most common viral agent implicated in the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). BRDC is an economically significant multifactorial disease of feedlot cattle estimated to cost Australian feedlot producers $AU60 million/year in lost production, therapeutics and disease management. Worldwide BRDC is attributed to cost $US2 billion to cattle industries. In an effort to limit the associated economic costs and enhance animal health and welfare of feedlot cattle, the concerted use of vaccination and diseased animal management are practiced. Numerous vaccines are available in North America and Canada however, in Australia, feedlot producers are reliant on three vaccines. These vaccines target either the bacterial or viral agents of the BRDC and encompass antibody, subunit and attenuated live BoHV-1 preparations. Live attenuated vaccines are developed by numerous methods including, deletion or disruption of certain genes. The development of an attenuated live virus vaccine was traditionally a laborious task requiring numerous rounds of in vitro purification. Contrastingly, technological advances introduced this decade, allowing the stable maintenance of the complete herpesvirus genome in bacteria as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), has advanced herpes virology exponentially in that investigation and manipulation of the herpesvirus genome can be conducted independent of a cell culture system. With respect to BRDC and the generation of vaccines to combat the disease, the tools to fully utilise the potential of BoHV-1 as a live vaccine vector are now routine. It is now possible to vii construct BoHV-1 as a delivery vector by inserting appropriate antigens of those bacterial and viral pathogens implicated in the BRDC into a BAC maintained BoHV-1 genome. However, there is a significant lack of genetic information regarding BoHV-1 and inserting several antigenic sequences would expand the genome of BoHV-1 inducing non-viability. Therefore, to further develop BoHV-1 as a vaccine vector, a study was conducted to identify the essential and nonessential genes required for the in vitro viability of BoHV-1. Identifying the essential and nonessential genes will establish which genes may be preferentially deleted or replaced with exogenous antigenic sequences in a BoHV-1 derived vaccine vector. To define the requirement of genes encoded by BoHV-1, random-insertion mutagenesis utilising a Tn5 transposition system and targeted gene deletion catalysed by GET recombination was employed to construct gene disruption and gene deletion libraries, respectively, of an infectious clone of BoHV-1. Transposon insertion position and confirmation of gene deletion was determined by direct sequencing. with the essential or nonessential requirement of either transposed or deleted open reading frames (ORFs) assessed by transfection of respective BoHV- 1 BAC DNA into host cells. Of the 73 recognised ORFs encoded by the BoHV-1 genome, 33 were determined to be essential and 36 to be nonessential for virus viability in cell culture with the requirement of the two dual copy ORFs inconclusive. The majority of ORFs were shown to conform to the in vitro requirements of BoHV-1 homologues encoded by Human herpesvirus 1. However, ORFs encoding for glycoprotein K (UL53), regulatory, membrane, tegument and capsid proteins (UL54, UL49.5, UL49, UL35, UL20, UL16 and UL7) were shown to differ in requirement when compared to Human herpesvirus-1 encoded homologues. Further analysis of clones encompassing restriction digestion profiling, one-step growth and replication kinetic analysis defined the genetic constitution and replicative capacity of the mutant clones. Thirty-three individual ORFs of the 36 defined nonessential ORF were identified as being amenable to deletion without causing significant replicative detriment to a potential BoHV-1 vaccine vector. This study has provided the foundational information required for the future development of BoHV-1 as a multivalent vaccine vector for the protection of feedlot cattle from BRDC. Furthermore, the genetic information generated in this study contributes to the general knowledge of the prototype ruminant herpesvirus, BoHV-1, and contributes to the comparative study of gene function between the large and diverse family that is Herpesviridae.
Keyword Bovine Herpesvirus-1
Bacterial Artificial Chromosome
Gene Requirement
Transposon Mutagenesis
GET recombination
Vaccine Vector
Additional Notes Colour Pages (OF PDF) 9, 11-18, 20, 23, 32, 69, 73, 77, 84, 87, 89, 91, 99, 103, 106, 115, 120, 125, 143, 147, 158, 173, 209. Landscape Pages (OF PDF) 158, 161-163, 175, 176, 183, 210-213, 225

 
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Created: Mon, 14 Sep 2009, 22:53:00 EST by Mr Karl Robinson on behalf of Library - Information Access Service