Iron-fortified parboiled rice: A novel solution to high iron density in rice-based diets

Prom-u-thai, Chanakan, Fukai, Shu, Godwin, Ian D., Rerkasem, Benjavan and Huang, Longbin (2008) Iron-fortified parboiled rice: A novel solution to high iron density in rice-based diets. Food Chemistry, 110 2: 390-398. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.02.043

Author Prom-u-thai, Chanakan
Fukai, Shu
Godwin, Ian D.
Rerkasem, Benjavan
Huang, Longbin
Title Iron-fortified parboiled rice: A novel solution to high iron density in rice-based diets
Journal name Food Chemistry   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0308-8146
Publication date 2008-09-15
Year available 2008
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.02.043
Open Access Status
Volume 110
Issue 2
Start page 390
End page 398
Total pages 9
Editor G.G. Birch
Place of publication Oxford, U.K.
Publisher Elsevier Science
Language eng
Subject C1
820402 Rice
090803 Food Nutritional Balance
0908 Food Sciences
Abstract The present study pioneered an investigation of a novel and cost-effective approach to fortify Fe in rice and to greatly improve Fe nutrition in rice-based diets through parboiling, though it remains at its preliminary phase. Rice grains of seven cultivars were parboiled in deionised water containing different levels of Fe chelate made by mixing different proportions of Fe sulfate (FeSO4) with ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid disodium salt (Na2EDTA). Adding Fe to the parboiling water resulted in an increased Fe concentration in the most grain, effectively where FeSO4 and Na2EDTA were mixed at 2:1 molar ratio (11.16 g Fe per 100 g raw paddy grain). This treatment resulted in Fe concentrations in white rice milled for 60 s and 120 s, which were 20–50 times higher than those in the unfortified milled raw rice grains. The Fe concentrations in milled rice grains were 50–150 mg Fe kg−1 in 60 s milled grains with a slight reduction in 120 s milled grains. Perls Prussian blue staining of the cross section of Fe-fortified parboiled rice grains suggested inward movement of added Fe into the endosperm through the apoplastic pathway in the dorsal region of the rice grain. The retention rates of fortified Fe varied among the different cultivars, possibly due to different physical–chemical properties of the grains. The percentages of soluble fraction of the total Fe were higher than 50% in all cultivars tested, indicating its high bioavailability potential, though it remains to be evaluated. The present findings provided a preliminary basis for further investigation of this innovative technique, before its adoption by parboiled rice industry, such as optimising the levels of Fe addition and industrial process and Fe bioavailability in Fe-fortified-parboiled rice.Copyright 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd
Keyword Oryza sativa
Parboiled rice
Parboiling process
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ
Additional Notes Available online 10 March 2008.

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Created: Fri, 17 Apr 2009, 05:48:31 EST by Emma Cushworth on behalf of Faculty Of Nat Resources, Agric & Veterinary Sc