Bacterial Microflora of Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its Shelf-life Extension by Essential Oil Compounds

Mahmoud, Barakat, S. M., Yamazaki, Koji, Miyashita, Kazuo, Il-Shik, Shin, Dong-Suk, Chang and Suzuki, Tetsuya (2004) Bacterial Microflora of Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its Shelf-life Extension by Essential Oil Compounds. Food Microbiology, 21 6: 657-666. doi:10.1016/

Author Mahmoud, Barakat, S. M.
Yamazaki, Koji
Miyashita, Kazuo
Il-Shik, Shin
Dong-Suk, Chang
Suzuki, Tetsuya
Title Bacterial Microflora of Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its Shelf-life Extension by Essential Oil Compounds
Formatted title
Bacterial Microflora of Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its Shelf-life Extension by Essential Oil Compounds
Journal name Food Microbiology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0740-0020
Publication date 2004-12-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 21
Issue 6
Start page 657
End page 666
Total pages 10
Place of publication London ; New York ; Sydney
Publisher Academic Press
Language eng
Subject 090802 Food Engineering
Formatted abstract
The microflora of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) skin, gill and intestine were analysed and the antimicrobial activities of garlic oil and nine constituents of essential oils (allyl isothiocyanate, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, citral, cuminnaldehyde, eugenol, isoeugenol, linalool and thymol) against the carp isolates were studied to identify compounds that might extend the shelf-life of carp fillet. A total of 90 isolated strains were identified to belong to seven genera: Acinetobacter (6), Alcaligenes (2), Bacillus (2), Flavobacterium (20), Micrococcus (2), Moraxella (6) and Pseudomonas (4), and two families Enterobacteriaceae (14) and Vibrionaceae (34). The dominant micro-organisms of carp were found to be Flavobacterium (37%) and Vibrionaceae (33%) in skin, Flavobacterium (33%) in gill and Vibrionaceae (63%) and Flavobacterium (37%) in intestine. Against these isolates, thymol, carvcarol and cinnamaldehyde had the strongest antimicrobial activities, followed by isoeugenol, eugenol, garlic oil, and then citral. The antimicrobial properties of the other constituents tested (cuminnaldehyde, linalool and allyl isothiocyanate) were low. In tests of mixed compounds, a combination of carvacrol and thymol had the highest antimicrobial activity. Moraxella, Flavobacterium and Vibrionaceae were more sensitive to the compounds, whereas Alcaligenes strains were resistant. Dipping carp fillets in a solution of 0.5% carvacrol and 0.5% thymol before storage at 5°C and 10°C reduced both the total microbial load by about 100-fold and the Volatile Bases Nitrogen (VB-N), as compared with controls. In addition, dipping treatment delayed bacterial growth and extended the shelf-life of the fillets from 4 to 12 days at low temperature (5°C). However, the treated and control fillets showed little difference during storage at 10°C. Data from sensory evaluation showed that dipped fillets in 1% (carvacrol+thymol) extended the shelf-life of carp fillets by 8 and 4 days at 5° and 10°C, respectively. Thus, carvacrol and thymol dipping can improve the microbial stability of fish fillets by removing bacteria and by inhibiting bacterial growth. @ 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keyword Antimicrobial
Carp fillet
Essential oil
Q-Index Code C1

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Excellence in Research Australia (ERA) - Collection
School of Medicine Publications
Version Filter Type
Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 66 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 88 times in Scopus Article | Citations
Google Scholar Search Google Scholar
Created: Thu, 09 Apr 2009, 19:47:01 EST by Juliette Grosvenor on behalf of Faculty Of Health Sciences