The pathology of bronchointerstitial pneumonia in young foals associated with the first outbreak of equine influenza in Australia

Janet Patterson-Kane, Carrick, J.B., Axon, J.E., Wilkie, Ian W. and Begg, A.P. (2008) The pathology of bronchointerstitial pneumonia in young foals associated with the first outbreak of equine influenza in Australia. Equine Veterinary Journal, 40 3: 199-203. doi:10.2746/042516408X292214


Author Janet Patterson-Kane
Carrick, J.B.
Axon, J.E.
Wilkie, Ian W.
Begg, A.P.
Title The pathology of bronchointerstitial pneumonia in young foals associated with the first outbreak of equine influenza in Australia
Journal name Equine Veterinary Journal   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0425-1644
Publication date 2008-01-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.2746/042516408X292214
Open Access Status
Volume 40
Issue 3
Start page 199
End page 203
Total pages 5
Editor Rossdale, P.D.
Place of publication UK
Publisher Equine Veterinary Journal Ltd
Language eng
Subject C1
070205 Animal Protection (Pests and Pathogens)
830306 Horses
Abstract Reasons for performing study: The first outbreak of equine influenza virus (EIV) infection was confirmed in Australia in 2007. Some EIV-positive young foals died with bronchointerstitial pneumonia, a rare disease process in this age group that is often postulated to be caused by viral infection. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe post mortem lesions in EIV-infected foals. Methods: Post mortem examinations were conducted on 11 young foals (age 2-12 days) submitted to the Scone Veterinary Hospital, New South Wales, Australia over a 2-month period in 2007. The foals had presented with or developed fatal pneumonia, and were known or suspected to be EIV-positive. Equine influenza virus nucleic acid was detected in tissue specimens using an influenza A group reactive real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay. Results: Grossly there was diffuse or extensive pulmonary consolidation. Histological changes included: bronchiolar and alveolar necrosis; neutrophilic infiltration; hyaline membrane formation; and hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia of airway epithelium. Tissues for 10 foals were EIV-positive, with a positive nasal swab from the remaining animal. Conclusions: This is the first detailed pathological description of bronchointerstitial pneumonia associated with EIV infection in young foals. It is also the first series of such cases in which a causative agent has consistently been detected. Potential relevance: Given the findings in this outbreak, and a previous outbreak in the UK in 1965 involving a similarly naïve population, veterinary clinicians and pathologists should be aware that EIV can cause fatal bronchointerstitial pneumonia in young foals that do not have maternal immunity. The lesions did not differ from those previously reported in foals of various ages with bronchointerstitial pneumonia of other or undefined causes, indicating that this is most likely to be a stereotypical response to a variety of insults. Therefore, tissue specimens should be obtained from cases of pneumonia in young foals for virological and bacteriological testing.
Keyword horse
horse disease
foal
Influenza A virus
H3N8 serotype
pneumonia
pathology
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: 2009 Higher Education Research Data Collection
School of Veterinary Science Publications
 
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Created: Tue, 07 Apr 2009, 21:53:08 EST by Narelle Poole on behalf of School of Veterinary Science