Evolution of Hyaluronic Acid Synthesis (has) Operon in Streptococcus zooepidemicus and other Pathogenic Streptococci

Lars M. Blank, Philip Hugenholtz and Nielsen, Lars K. (2008) Evolution of Hyaluronic Acid Synthesis (has) Operon in Streptococcus zooepidemicus and other Pathogenic Streptococci. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 67 1: 13-22. doi:10.1007/s00239-008-9117-1


Author Lars M. Blank
Philip Hugenholtz
Nielsen, Lars K.
Title Evolution of Hyaluronic Acid Synthesis (has) Operon in Streptococcus zooepidemicus and other Pathogenic Streptococci
Formatted title
Evolution of Hyaluronic Acid Synthesis (has) Operon in Streptococcus zooepidemicus and other Pathogenic Streptococci
Journal name Journal of Molecular Evolution   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0022-2844
Publication date 2008-06-13
Year available 2008
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1007/s00239-008-9117-1
Open Access Status Not Open Access
Volume 67
Issue 1
Start page 13
End page 22
Total pages 10
Editor Martin Kreitman
Place of publication New York, USA
Publisher Springer New York LLC
Language eng
Subject C1
060409 Molecular Evolution
970106 Expanding Knowledge in the Biological Sciences
Abstract Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a ubiquitous linear polysaccharide in vertebrates and also is the capsule material of some pathogenic bacteria including group A and C streptococci. In bacteria, the HA synthase occurs in an operon (has) coding for enzymes involved in the production of HA precursors. We report two new members of the has operon family from Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) and Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (S. equi). The has operon of S. zooepidemicus contains, in order, hasA, hasB, hasC, glum, and pgi, whereas these genes are separated on two operons in S. equi (hasA, hasB, hasC and hasC, glmU, pgi). The transcription start site and a σ70 promoter were experimentally identified 50 bp upstream of hasA in S. zooepidemicus. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of each of the has operon genes to determine the evolutionary origin(s) of the streptococcal has operon. In contrast to other capsular and exopolysaccharide operons, has operons have undergone no detectable interspecies lateral gene transfers in their construction, instead relying on intragenome gene duplication for their assembly. Specifically, hasC and glmU appear to have been duplicated into the S. zooepidemicus has operon from remotely located but near-identical paralogues most likely to improve HA productivity by gene dosage in this streptococcus. The intragene rearrangements appear to be ongoing events and the two has operons of the S. equi subspecies represent two alternatives of the same gene arrangement. A scenario for the evolution of streptococcal has operons is proposed.
Keyword Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Evolutionary Biology
Genetics & Heredity
Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Evolutionary Biology
Genetics & Heredity
BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY
GENETICS & HEREDITY
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: 2009 Higher Education Research Data Collection
Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology Publications
 
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 33 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
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Created: Tue, 07 Apr 2009, 20:13:23 EST by Mrs Jennifer Brown on behalf of Aust Institute for Bioengineering & Nanotechnology