The Welfare of livestock During Sea Transport

Phillips, Clive J.C. (2008). The Welfare of livestock During Sea Transport. In Appleby, M. (Ed.), Long Distance Transport and Welfare of Farm Animals (pp. 137-156) UK: CAB International.

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Name Description MIMEType Size Downloads
Author Phillips, Clive J.C.
Title of chapter The Welfare of livestock During Sea Transport
Title of book Long Distance Transport and Welfare of Farm Animals
Place of Publication UK
Publisher CAB International
Publication Year 2008
Sub-type Research book chapter (original research)
ISBN 9781845934033
Editor Appleby, M.
Chapter number 6
Start page 137
End page 156
Total pages 20
Total chapters 14
Language eng
Subjects B1
070207 Humane Animal Treatment
830310 Sheep - Meat
Abstract/Summary Large numbers of livestock are reared for transport overseas, and the long duration of the journey and the changes in the animals’ environments provide special challenges compared to other short distance transport. A description is provided of the most common methods of transporting live animals by sea for slaughter internationally. The biggest exporter in the world is Australia and the main markets are South-east Asia and the Middle East. The most common livestock transported are cattle and sheep, but goats, camels, buffalo, pigs and horses may also be transported alive. It is emphasized that multiple factors impacting on animal welfare are involved before, during and after the ship voyage; these include mustering, shearing (in the case of sheep), transport to feedlots and several changes of environment that can cause fear and anxiety. Information on the welfare of exported cattle and sheep on transport ships from Australia comes mainly from a survey of expert opinion completed in 2005. This found that the major stressors on ship were believed to be clinical diseases, especially inappetence and salmonellosis in the case of sheep, heat stress, high stocking density and high ammonia levels. The reported mortality rate is considerably greater for sheep than cattle, particularly due to failure to eat in the sheep, but has tended to decline for both species over the last five years. Other potential stressors, about which little is known, include noise, motion sickness, changes in lighting patterns and novel environments.
Q-Index Code B1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code

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Created: Mon, 30 Mar 2009, 19:07:28 EST by Narelle Poole on behalf of School of Veterinary Science