Crystal methamphetamine smoking among regular ecstasy users in Australia: increases in use and associations with harm

Kinner, Stuart and Degenhardt, Louisa (2008) Crystal methamphetamine smoking among regular ecstasy users in Australia: increases in use and associations with harm. Drug and Alcohol Review, 27 3: 292-300. doi:10.1080/09595230801919452


Author Kinner, Stuart
Degenhardt, Louisa
Title Crystal methamphetamine smoking among regular ecstasy users in Australia: increases in use and associations with harm
Journal name Drug and Alcohol Review   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0959-5236
Publication date 2008-01-01
Year available 2008
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1080/09595230801919452
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 27
Issue 3
Start page 292
End page 300
Total pages 9
Editor John Saunders
Place of publication United Kingdom
Publisher Wiley- Blackwell Publishing
Language eng
Subject C1
111706 Epidemiology
920414 Substance Abuse
Abstract Introduction. This study examined (a) changes in crystal methamphetamine use among regular ecstasy users (REU) in Australia and (b) associations of crystal use and smoking with demographics, drug use and harm. Design and Methods. Cross-sectional surveys (2000 - 06) of REU in three Australian capital cities, and in 2006, 750 REU in all Australian capital cities. The interview included: demographics, drug use, risk behaviour, recent criminal activity and methamphetamine dependence using Severity of Dependence Scale. Results. There was little change in overall methamphetamine use, but a marked increase in crystal methamphetamine smoking. Among recent methamphetamine users in 2006 (n = 606), crystal methamphetamine users (n = 364) reported more frequent methamphetamine use and higher levels of dependence. Compared with those who had used only other forms of methamphetamine, recent crystal methamphetamine users were more likely to 'binge' on drugs for ≥48 hours, engage in crime and experience financial and legal problems related to drug use. Non-smoking crystal methamphetamine users (n = 78) more often reported recent injecting and heroin use. Recent smokers were more likely to have: greater polydrug use, recently overdosed on a 'party drug', and accessed medical services for their drug use. Many of these associations were accounted for by their injecting and heavier methamphetamine use, rather than smoking per se. Conclusions. Crystal methamphetamine smoking among REU has increased markedly and is associated with significant harm. This appears related to smokers' heavier levels of methamphetamine use. Effective harm reduction strategies should be tailored to these specific risks.
Keyword dependence
epidemiology
ecstasy
injecting drug use
methamphetamine
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: 2009 Higher Education Research Data Collection
School of Public Health Publications
 
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 16 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 18 times in Scopus Article | Citations
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Created: Thu, 26 Mar 2009, 21:57:07 EST by Yvonne Flanagan on behalf of School of Public Health