Auditory startle alters the response of human subjects exposed to a single whiplash-like perturbation

Blouin, Jean-Sebastien, Inglis, John Timothy and Siegmund, Gunter (2006) Auditory startle alters the response of human subjects exposed to a single whiplash-like perturbation. Spine, 31 2: 146-154. doi:10.1097/01.brs.0000195157.75056.df


Author Blouin, Jean-Sebastien
Inglis, John Timothy
Siegmund, Gunter
Title Auditory startle alters the response of human subjects exposed to a single whiplash-like perturbation
Journal name Spine   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0362-2436
1528-1159
Publication date 2006-01-15
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1097/01.brs.0000195157.75056.df
Open Access Status
Volume 31
Issue 2
Start page 146
End page 154
Total pages 9
Place of publication Philadelphia, PA, United States
Publisher Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Language eng
Subject 1109 Neurosciences
Formatted abstract
Objective.
To determine how muscle and kinematic responses are affected by the superposition of a rear-end collision and loud startling noise.

Summary of Background Data.

Many whiplash studies use forward perturbations without reproducing the sound of a car crash. Loud sounds are known to evoke startle responses in the neck muscles and therefore could affect whiplash injuries.

Methods.
Sixty-five subjects (30 female, 35 male) were exposed to a single forward horizontal perturbation. Head and torso kinematics, and electromyographic activity in the sternohyoid, sternocleidomastoid, scalenus, and cervical paraspinal muscles were measured. Two awareness conditions (deceived and unaware subjects) nested in two startle conditions (with or without a 40 milliseconds, 124 dB sound) were tested.

Results.

Startle and gender affected the amplitude and timing of numerous kinematic and muscle variables. Awareness affected only one muscle variable. Startled individuals exhibited greater peak head and trunk accelerations, increased activity of the cervical paraspinal muscles, and a reduced head retraction and trunk angle.

Conclusions.
An acoustic startle alters the neck muscle and kinematic responses and may be as important as gender in the genesis of whiplash injury.
Keyword Biomechanics
Loud startling sound
Neck muscles
Reflex
Whiplash
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status Non-UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Excellence in Research Australia (ERA) - Collection
School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences Publications
 
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 15 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 16 times in Scopus Article | Citations
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Created: Thu, 05 Mar 2009, 19:24:36 EST by Gina Velli on behalf of School of Health & Rehabilitation Sciences