The tissue kallikrein family of serine proteases: Functional roles in human disease and potential as clinical biomarkers

Clements, Judith A., Willemsen, Nicole M., Myers, Stephen A. and Dong, Ying (2004) The tissue kallikrein family of serine proteases: Functional roles in human disease and potential as clinical biomarkers. Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences, 41 3: 265-312. doi:10.1080/10408360490471931


Author Clements, Judith A.
Willemsen, Nicole M.
Myers, Stephen A.
Dong, Ying
Title The tissue kallikrein family of serine proteases: Functional roles in human disease and potential as clinical biomarkers
Journal name Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0590-8191
1040-8363
Publication date 2004-01-01
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.1080/10408360490471931
Volume 41
Issue 3
Start page 265
End page 312
Total pages 48
Place of publication Boca Raton, FL, U.S.A.
Publisher CRC Press
Language eng
Subject 0601 Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Abstract Prostate specific antigen (PSA) or human kallikrein 3 (hK3) has long been an effective biomarker for prostate cancer. Now, other members of the tissue kallikrein (KLK) gene family are fast becoming of clinical interest due to their potential as prognostic biomarkers, particularly for hormone dependent cancers. The tissue kallikreins are serine proteases that are encoded by highly conserved multi-gene family clusters in rodents and humans. The rat and mouse loci contain 10 and 25 functional genes, respectively, while the human locus at 19q 13.4 contains 15 genes. The structural organization and size of these genes are similar across species; all genes have 5 coding exons that encode a prepro-enzyme. Although the physiological activators of these zymogens have not been described, in vitro biochemical studies show that some kallikreins can auto-activate and others can activate each other, suggesting that the kallikreins may participate in an enzymatic cascade similar to that of the coagulation cascade. These genes are expressed, to varying degrees, in a wide range of tissues suggesting a functional involvement in a diverse range of physiological and pathophysiological processes. These include roles in normal skin desquamation and psoriatic lesions, tooth development, neural plasticity, and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Of particular interest is the expression of many kallikreins in prostate, ovarian, and breast cancers where they are emerging as useful prognostic indicators of disease progression.
Keyword KLK/hK
gene family
tissue-specific expression
skin
central nervous system
hormone dependent cancers
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Unknown

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collections: Excellence in Research Australia (ERA) - Collection
Institute for Molecular Bioscience - Publications
 
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Created: Tue, 10 Feb 2009, 22:21:47 EST by Alexandra Cooney on behalf of Faculty Of Health Sciences