Measuring exposure to S. japonicum in China. I. Activity diaries to assess water contact and comparison to other measures

Ross, Allen G. P., Li, Yuesheng, Sleigh, Adrian C., Williams, Gail M., Hartel, Gunter F., Forsyth, Simon J., Yi, Li and McManus, Donald P. (1998) Measuring exposure to S. japonicum in China. I. Activity diaries to assess water contact and comparison to other measures. Acta Tropica, 71 3: 213-228. doi:10.1016/S0001-706X(98)00063-1

Author Ross, Allen G. P.
Li, Yuesheng
Sleigh, Adrian C.
Williams, Gail M.
Hartel, Gunter F.
Forsyth, Simon J.
Yi, Li
McManus, Donald P.
Title Measuring exposure to S. japonicum in China. I. Activity diaries to assess water contact and comparison to other measures
Journal name Acta Tropica   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1873-6254
Publication date 1998-11-30
Year available 1998
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/S0001-706X(98)00063-1
Open Access Status
Volume 71
Issue 3
Start page 213
End page 228
Total pages 16
Place of publication Oxford
Publisher Elsevier Science B.V.
Language eng
Abstract We introduce a new method, activity diaries, in order to evaluate human water contact among fishing communities in an area moderately endemic for Schistosoma japonicum in the Dongting Lake region of Southern China. Two hundred and forty-nine subjects (76% male) were followed prospectively over a 9-month-period in order to verify exposure and reinfection. Exposure was determined crudely with questionnaires, direct 12-h water observations, and more precisely with activity diaries and an adjusted exposure model which took into account the time of day, the duration of contact and the percent body surface area in contact with water. Cohort subjects filled in activity diaries for an average of 85 days as compared with 2 days for the direct water observations. The typical unadjusted mean daily water contact (duration) based on the activity diaries was 53 min with 62% of this time spent in fishing. In contrast, the direct water observations revealed an average daily duration of 149 min with 53% of the time spent in fishing. Human water contact patterns (min/day) by site, activity and body part exposed were examined with the activity diaries. Individuals in the 36-49-year-old age range had the highest degree of water contact. Most of this daily contact occurred by males on the hands (mean±S.D.; 83.53±67.80 min/day) while fishing (mean±S.D.; 87.84±68.88 min/day) on the lake (mean±S.D.; 85.98±69.90 min/day). There was a strong positive log correlation (r=0.95) between the crude and adjusted (based on our derived exposure model) diary outcomes for the entire study sample, however, at higher exposure levels this relationship was differentially weaker (r=0.70). Results from this study suggest that current methods used in evaluating schistosomiasis exposure in China may overestimate and bias measures of the risk of infection. Activity diaries adjusted for the time of day, duration and the percent body surface area exposed are cost-effective and practical instruments to accurately quantify human exposure in the vast lake regions of Southern China where most of the endemic schistosomiasis japonica occurs. Copyright (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.
Keyword Activity diaries
Human water contact
Schistosoma japonicum
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Unknown

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Excellence in Research Australia (ERA) - Collection
School of Public Health Publications
School of Medicine Publications
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 29 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
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