Minimum Specific Energy and Critical Flow Conditions in Open Channels

Chanson, Hubert (2006) Minimum Specific Energy and Critical Flow Conditions in Open Channels. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 132 5: 498-502. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(2006)132:5(498)

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Author Chanson, Hubert
Title Minimum Specific Energy and Critical Flow Conditions in Open Channels
Journal name Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0733-9437
Publication date 2006-08-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(2006)132:5(498)
Open Access Status File (Author Post-print)
Volume 132
Issue 5
Start page 498
End page 502
Total pages 5
Editor William Ritter
Place of publication United States
Publisher American Society of Civil Engineers
Collection year 2006
Language eng
Subject 260502 Surfacewater Hydrology
240502 Fluid Physics
240000 Physical Sciences
291100 Environmental Engineering
290000 Engineering and Technology
299904 Engineering/Technology Instrumentation
260000 Earth Sciences
300100 Soil and Water Sciences
300000 Agricultural, Veterinary and Environmental Sciences
240500 Classical Physics
260500 Hydrology
290802 Water and Sanitary Engineering
300105 Applied Hydrology (Drainage, Flooding, Irrigation, Quality, etc.)
290800 Civil Engineering
291103 Environmental Engineering Design
290899 Civil Engineering not elsewhere classified
770402 Land and water management
Abstract In open channels, the relationship between the specific energy and the flow depth exhibits a minimum, and the corresponding flow conditions are called critical flow conditions. Herein they are re-analysed on the basis of the depth-averaged Bernoulli equation. At critical flow, there is only one possible flow depth, and a new analytical expression of that characteristic depth is developed for ideal-fluid flow situations with non-hydrostatic pressure distribution and non-uniform velocity distribution. The results are applied to relevant critical flow conditions : e.g., at the crest of a spillway. The finding may be applied to predict more accurately the discharge on weir and spillway crests.
Keyword open channel flow
critical flow conditions
minimum specific energy
discharge coefficient
weirs and spillways
Water Resources
References Bakhmeteff, B.A. (1912). "O Neravnomernom Dwijenii Jidkosti v Otkrytom Rusle." ('Varied Flow in Open Channel.') St Petersburg, Russia (in Russian). Bakhmeteff, B.A. (1932). "Hydraulics of Open Channels." McGraw-Hill, New York, USA, 1st ed., 329 pages. Belanger, J.B. (1828). "Essai sur la Solution Numerique de quelques Problemes Relatifs au Mouvement Permanent des Eaux Courantes." ('Essay on the Numerical Solution of Some Problems relative to Steady Flow of Water.') Carilian-Goeury, Paris, France (in French). Chanson, H. (1999). "The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flows : An Introduction." Edward Arnold, London, UK, 1st edition, 512 pages. Chanson, H. (2004). "The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flows : An Introduction." Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 2nd edition, 630 pages. Chanson, H., and Montes, J.S. (1998). "Overflow Characteristics of Circular Weirs : Effect of Inflow Conditions." Jl of Irrigation and Drainage Engrg., ASCE, Vol. 124, No. 3, pp. 152-162. Fawer, C. (1937). "Etude de Quelques Ecoulements Permanents a Filets Courbes." ('Study of some Steady Flows with Curved Streamlines.') Thesis, Lausanne, Switzerland, Imprimerie La Concorde, 127 pages (in French). Henderson, F.M. (1966). "Open Channel Flow." MacMillan Company, New York, USA. Jaeger, C. (1956). "Engineering Fluid Mechanics." Blackie & Son, Glascow, UK, 529 pages. Liggett, J.A. (1993). "Critical Depth, Velocity Profiles and Averaging." Jl of Irrig. and Drain. Engrg., ASCE, Vol. 119, No. 2, pp. 416-422. Ramamurthy, A.S., Vo, N.D., and Vera, G. (1992). "Momentum Model of Flow Past Weir." Jl of Irrig. and Drain. Engrg., ASCE, Vol. 118, No. 6, pp. 988-994. Rouse, H. (1946). "Elementary Mechanics of Fluids." John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA, 376 pages. Vallentine, H.R. (1969). "Applied Hydrodynamics." Butterworths, London, UK, SI edition. Vo, N.D. (1992). "Characteristics of Curvilinear Flow Past Circular-Crested Weirs." Ph.D. thesis, Concordia Univ., Canada.
Q-Index Code C1
Additional Notes The full bibliographic details are : CHANSON, H. (2006). "Minimum Specific Energy and Critical Flow Conditions in Open Channels." Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 132, No. 5, pp. 498-502 (DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(2006)132:5(498)) (ISSN 0733-9437). Copyright 2006 The American Society of Civil Engineers.

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Created: Thu, 05 Oct 2006, 10:00:00 EST by Hubert Chanson on behalf of School of Engineering