A test facility for hypervelocity rarefied flows

Macrossan, Michael N., Chiu, H.- H. and Mee, David J. (2001). A test facility for hypervelocity rarefied flows. In: Timothy J. Bartel and Michael A. Gallis, 22nd International Symposium on Rarefied Gas Dynamics (AIP Conference Proceedings), Sydney, Australia, (772-779). 9-14 July, 2000.

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Author Macrossan, Michael N.
Chiu, H.- H.
Mee, David J.
Title of paper A test facility for hypervelocity rarefied flows
Conference name 22nd International Symposium on Rarefied Gas Dynamics (AIP Conference Proceedings)
Conference location Sydney, Australia
Conference dates 9-14 July, 2000
Journal name Rarefied Gas Dynamics   Check publisher's open access policy
Place of Publication USA
Publisher American Institute of Physics
Publication Year 2001
Sub-type Fully published paper
Open Access Status File (Author Post-print)
ISBN 0-7354-0025-3
ISSN 0094-243X
Editor Timothy J. Bartel
Michael A. Gallis
Volume 585
Start page 772
End page 779
Total pages 8
Language eng
Abstract/Summary This paper describes a rarefied hypervelocity test facility producing gas speeds greater than 7 km/s. The X1 expansion tube at the University of Queensland has been used to produce nitrogen flows at 8.9 and 9.5 km/s with test flow durations of 50 and 40 microsecond­s respectively. Rarefied flow is indicated by values of the freestream breakdown parameter > 0.1 (Cheng's rarefaction parameter < 10) and freestream Knudsen numbers up to 0.038, based on a model size of 9 mm. To achieve this, the test gas is expanded from the end of the acceleration tube into a dump tank. Nominal conditions in the expansion are derived from CFD predictions. Measured bar gauge (Pitot) pressures show that the flow is radially uniform when the Pitot pressure has decreased by a factor ten. The measured bar gauge pressures are an increasing fraction of the expected Pitot pressure as the rarefaction parameters increase.
Subjects 240502 Fluid Physics
290299 Aerospace Engineering not elsewhere classified
Keyword Rarefied flow
Pitot pressure
Impulse facility
High energy
Breakdown parameter
Cheng's parameter
References 1. Bird, G A. "Rarefied gas dynamics and the direct simulation of gas flows" Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1994. 2. Borque, B. "Development of a hypervelocity wind tunnel for rarefied flows", Undergraduate thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Queensland, 1999. 3. Cheng, H K. "Hypersonic shock-layer theory of the stagnation region at low Reynolds Number" Proc 1961 Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Institute (Stanford University Press, Stanford, California), 1961. 4. Clayden, W A. "The ARDE low-density wind tunnel" 1st Int Symposium Rarefied Gas Dynamics (ed Devine), 21, Pergamon Press 1958. 5. Coleman, G T, Metcalf, S C and Berry, C J. "Heat transfer to hemisphere cylinders and bluff cylinders between continuum and free molecular limits" 10th Int Symposium Rarefied Gas Dynamics (ed Potter), Part I, 393, 1977. 6. Gupta, R Yos, J M, Thompson, R A and Lee, K-P. "A review of reaction rates and thermodynamic and transport properties for the 11-species air model for chemical and thermal non-equilibrium calculations to 30000K" NASA TM-101528, 1989. 7. Hurlbut, F C. "Techniques of measurement, flow visualisation". 1st Int Symposium Rarefied Gas Dynamics (ed Devine), 55, Pergamon Press 1958. 8. Jacobs, P A. "MB_CNS: A computer program for the simulation of transient Compressible Flows," Department of Mechanical Engineering Report 1/89, University of Queensland, 1989. 9. Kewley, D J and Hornung, H G. "Free-piston shock-tube study of nitrogen dissociation". Chem Phys Lett 25, 531, 1974. 10. Macrossan, M. N. "A particle simulation method for the BGK equation", presented at 22nd Int Symposium on Rarefied Gas Dynamics, Sydney July 2000a. 11. Macrossan, M. N. "A particle-only hybrid method for near continuum flows", presented at 22nd Int Symposium on Rarefied Gas Dynamics, Sydney July 2000b. 12. Muntz, E P. "Rarefied gas dynamics", Ann Rev Fluid Mech, 21, 387, 1989. 13. Neely, A. "Experimental and analytical study of a pilot superorbital expansion tube for aerothermodynamic testing to 13 km/s in air". Ph D Thesis, The University of Queensland, 1996. 14. Neely, A, Morgan, R. "The superorbital expansion tube concept, experiment and analysis". Aero J, March 1994, 97, 1994. 15. Schaaf, S A and Chambre, P L. "Flow of rarefied gases". High speed Aerodynamics and Jet Propulsion Series, III (H). Princeton University Press, 1949. 16. Smith, A L, Mee, D J . "Dynamic strain measurement using piezoelectric polymer film". J Strain Anal, 31(6), 463, 1996. 17. Tsein, H S. "Superaerodynamics, mechanics of rarefied gases". J Aero Sci, 13, 342, 1946.
Q-Index Code E1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Unknown

Document type: Conference Paper
Collection: School of Mechanical & Mining Engineering Publications
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