The Effect of Basal Diet on Lactate-Producing Bacteria and the Susceptibility of Sheep to Lactic Acidosis

Al Jassim, R. A. M., Gordon, G. L. R. and Rowe, J. B. (2003) The Effect of Basal Diet on Lactate-Producing Bacteria and the Susceptibility of Sheep to Lactic Acidosis. Animal Science, 77 3: 459-469.

Attached Files (Some files may be inaccessible until you login with your UQ eSpace credentials)
Name Description MIMEType Size Downloads
basal_diet_and_l.pdf basal_diet_and_l.pdf application/pdf 163.56KB 620

Author Al Jassim, R. A. M.
Gordon, G. L. R.
Rowe, J. B.
Title The Effect of Basal Diet on Lactate-Producing Bacteria and the Susceptibility of Sheep to Lactic Acidosis
Journal name Animal Science   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1357-7298
Publication date 2003-12-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
Open Access Status File (Author Post-print)
Volume 77
Issue 3
Start page 459
End page 469
Total pages 11
Place of publication UK
Publisher British Society of Animal Science
Collection year 2003
Language eng
Subject 300403 Animal Nutrition
C1
300507 Microbiology (excl. Virology)
730113 Digestive system and disorders
Abstract The influence of a diet of either pasture or hay on the development of lactic acidosis in sheep was investigated using a grain challenge approach. Twenty-four Merino wethers with a mean live weight of 36.7 (s.e. 3.6) kg were used; 12 were adapted to grass pasture and 12 to hay (lucerne and oaten hay, 60 : 40) for 4 weeks before being given 1 kg of crushed barley via stomach tube. Six sheep in each group were also given virginiamycin (VM; 50 mg/kg barley) with the grain to test the efficacy of this antibiotic in controlling the bacteria responsible for the development of acidosis. Changes in volatile fatty acid (VFA), pH, lactate and bacterial count in the rumen and faecal pH and dry matter (DM) were measured for a 24-h period following administration of the barley. Daily intakes of hay were measured for a 10-day period following grain engorgement. Total ruminal VFA increased (P < 0.01) over time and tended (P = 0.08) to be higher in sheep adapted to hay than in those adapted to pasture (67.5 v. 59.8 mmol/l). The molar proportions of VFA changed (P< 0.01) over time in favour of propionate in both groups. Ruminal pH was higher (P< 0.001) in pasture-adapted sheep, but declined (P< 0.001) in both groups over time following the introduction of barley. This decline in pH was associated with increases in ruminal concentration of VFA in pasture-adapted sheep and VFA and lactate in hay-adapted sheep. The addition of VM resulted in a higher (P < 0.001) proportion of propionate and a trend towards higher (P = 0.24) faecal pH and DM content. Faecal pH and DM content declined (P < 0.001) over time and was lower for the pasture-adapted sheep. The introduction of either barley alone or barley with VM from both hay and pasture diets increased (P < 0.05) the viable counts of total bacteria, Streptococcus bovis and lactic acid bacteria. Bacterial isolates were purified and identified by complete sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to determine the predominant bacteria during the overfeeding of grain. Isolates from medium selective for S. bovis were all identified as this species when VM was not given. VM had no effect on counts of viable bacteria, but inhibited the growth of S. bovis.
Keyword acidosis
feed grains
lactic acid bacteria
Streptococcus bovis
virginiamycin
Agriculture, Dairy & Animal Science
References Al Jassim, R. A. M. and Rowe, J. B. 1999. Better understanding of acidosis and its control. Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition in Australia 12: 91-97. Allison, M. J., Robinson, I. M., Dougherty, R. W. and Bucklin, J. A. 1975. Grain overload in cattle and sheep: changes in microbial population in the cecum and rumen. American Journal of Veterinary Research 36: 181-185. Caldwell, D. R. and Bryant, M. P. 1966. Medium without rumen fluid for nonselective enumeration and isolation of rumen bacteria. Applied Microbiology 14: 794-801. Chaucheyras, F., Fonty, G., Bertin, G., Salmon, J. and Gouet, P. 1996. Effect of a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Levucell SC), a microbial additive for ruminants, on lactate metabolism in vitro. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 42: 927-933. Courtney, D. A. and Seirer, R. C. 1996. Supplementary feeding of grain to cattle with virginiamycin to reduce the risk of acidosis. Proceedings of the Australian Society for Animal Production 21: 344 (abstr. ). De Man, J. C., Rogosa, M. and Sharp, M. E. 1960. A medium for the cultivation of lactobacilli. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 23: 130-135. Dunn, B. H., Emerick, R. J. and Embry, B. 1979. Sodium bentonite and sodium bicarbonate in high-concentrate diets for lambs and steers. Journal of Animal Science 48: 764-769. Goad, D. W., Goad, C. L. and Nagaraja, T. G. 1998. Ruminal microbial and fermentative changes associated with experimentally induced sub-clinical acidosis in steers. Journal of Animal Science 76: 234-241. Godfrey, S. I., Rowe, J. B., Speijers, E. J. and Toon, W. 1993. Lupin, barley, or barley plus virginiamycin as supplement for sheep at different feeding intervals. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 33: 135-140. Godfrey, S. I., Rowe, J. B., Thorniley, G. R., Boyce, G. R. and Speijers, E. J. 1995. Virginiamycin to protect sheep fed wheat, barley or oats from grain poisoning under simulated drought feeding conditions. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 46: 393-401. Gottschall, D. W., Gombatz, C. and Wang, R. 1987. Analysis of tissue residues and comparative metabolism of virginiamycin in rats, turkeys and cattle. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 35: 900-904. Hungate, R. E. 1969. A roll tube method for cultivation of strict anaerobes. In Methods in microbiology, vol. 3 (ed. J. R. Norris and E. W. Ribbons), pp. 117-132. Academic Press, New York. Huntington, G. B. 1993. Nutritional problems related to the gastro-intestinal tract: acidosis. In The ruminant animal: digestive physiology and nutrition (ed. D. C. Church), pp. 474-480. Waveland Press Inc., IL. Huntington, G. B., Emerick, R. J. and Embry, L. B. 1977. Sodium bentonite effects when fed at various levels with high concentrate diets to lambs. Journal of Animal Science 45: 119-125. Kezar, W. W. and Church, D. C. 1979. Effect of thiopeptin and bicarbonate on the prevention of lactic acidosis induced in sheep. Journal of Animal Science 49: 1396-1402. Kung, L. and Hession, A. O. 1995. Preventing in vitro lactate accumulation in ruminal fermentation by inoculation with Megasphaera elsdenii. Journal of Animal Science 73: 250-256. Lane, D. J. 1991. 16S rRNA sequencing. In Nucleic acid techniques in bacterial systematics (ed. E. Stackebrandt and M. Goodfellow), pp. 115-175. Academic Press, Chichester. Mackie, R. I., Gilchrist, F. M. C., Robberts, A. M., Hannah, P. E. and Schwartz, H. M. 1978. Microbiological and chemical changes in the rumen during the stepwise adaptation of sheep to high concentrate diets. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 90: 241-252. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. 1981. The analysis of agricultural materials, second edition. A manual of the analytical methods used by the Agricultural Development and Advisory Service, pp. 1-6. Nagaraja, T. G., Avery, T. B., Bartley, E. E., Galitzer, S. J. and Dayton, A. D. 1981. Prevention of lactic acidosis in cattle by lasalocid or monensin. Journal of Animal Science 53: 206-216. Nagaraja, T. G., Avery, T. B., Galitzer, S. J. and Harmon, D. L. 1985. Effect of ionophore antibiotics on experimentally induced lactic acidosis in cattle. American Journal of Veterinary Research 46: 2444-2452. Nagaraja, T. G., Godfrey, S. I., Winslow, S. W. and Rowe, J. B. 1995. Responses in ciliated protozoa and rumen fermentation in sheep with barley plus virginiamycin. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 46: 1137-1147. Oragui, J. I. and Mara, D. D. 1984. A note on a modified membrane-Bovis agar for the enumeration of Streptococcus bovis by membrane filtration. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 56: 179-181. Osborne, D. R. and Voogt, P. 1978. The analysis of nutrient in foods. Academic Press, London. Owens, F. N., Secrist, D. S., Hill, W. J. and Gill, D. R. 1998. Acidosis in cattle: a review. Journal of Animal Science 76: 275-286. Rogers, J. A., Branine, M. E., Miller, C. R., Wray, M. I., Bartle, S. J., Preston, R. L., Gill, D. R., Pritchard, R. H., Stilborn, R. P. and Bechtol, D. T. 1995. Effects of dietary virginiamycin on performance and liver abscess incidence in feedlot cattle. Journal of Animal Science 73: 9-20. Schwartz, H. M. and Gilchrist, F. M. C. 1974. Microbial interactions with the diet and the host animal. In Digestion and metabolism in the ruminant (ed. I. W. McDonald and A.C. I. Warner), pp. 165-179. University of New England Publishing Unit, Armidale, Australia. Statgraphics Plus. 1996. Using general linear regression models (GLM). Manugistics Inc., Rockville, MD. Thorniley, G. R., Rowe, J. B., Cowcher, P. C. and Boyce, M. D. 1998. A single drench of virginiamycin to increase safety of feeding grain to sheep. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 49: 899-906. Wallace, R. J. 1996. Rumen microbiology and efficiency of digestion. In Milk composition, production and biotechnology (ed. R. A. S. Welch, D. J. W. Burns, S. R. Davis, A. I. Popay and C. G. Prosser), pp. 465-487. CAB International, Wallingford. Wells, J. E., Krause, D. O., Callaway, T. R. and Russell, J. B. 1997. A bacteriocin-mediated antagonism by ruminal lactobacilli against Streptococcus bovis. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 22: 237-243. Wiryawan, K. G. and Brooker, J. D. 1995. Probiotic control of lactate accumulation in acutely grain-fed sheep. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 46: 1555-1568.
Q-Index Code C1
Additional Notes Reproduced with permission of the British Society of Animal Science. Copyright 2003 British Society of Animal Science.

 
Versions
Version Filter Type
Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 8 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 0 times in Scopus Article
Google Scholar Search Google Scholar
Created: Tue, 11 Oct 2005, 10:00:00 EST by Jo Spicer on behalf of Faculty Of Nat Resources, Agric & Veterinary Sc