Aeration Due to Breaking Waves

Cummings, Peter D. (1996). Aeration Due to Breaking Waves PhD Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland.

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Author Cummings, Peter D.
Thesis Title Aeration Due to Breaking Waves
School, Centre or Institute Department of Civil Engineering
Institution The University of Queensland
Publication date 1996-01-01
Thesis type PhD Thesis
Subjects 291205 Ocean Engineering
291200 Maritime Engineering
291801 Fluidization and Fluid Mechanics
291803 Turbulent Flows
240500 Classical Physics
291802 Heat and Mass Transfer Operations
290800 Civil Engineering
260400 Oceanography
291103 Environmental Engineering Design
240502 Fluid Physics
290000 Engineering and Technology
291100 Environmental Engineering
260403 Physical Oceanography
290600 Chemical Engineering
260000 Earth Sciences
291800 Interdisciplinary Engineering
290601 Chemical Engineering Design
300100 Soil and Water Sciences
290802 Water and Sanitary Engineering
300105 Applied Hydrology (Drainage, Flooding, Irrigation, Quality, etc.)
Abstract/Summary The exchange of mass (gases, water & salts) between the oceans and the atmosphere is vital to the maintenance of life on earth. At high wind velocities most of this exchange is attributable to breaking wave entrained air bubbles. A vertical supported planar plunging jet experiment was used to model the entrainment process. The bubbles were detected with a dual tip conductivity probe and a video camera. At plunging jet velocities below 1.0m/s there is no bubble entrainment. This inception velocity appears to have a Froude and Weber number scaling for large rough turbulent jets. At jet velocities up to 5m/s air appeared to be entrained via intermittent air cavities at the jet - plunge pool intersection. The entrained air packets subsequently break in the two phase free shear layer under the entrainment point. At higher jet velocities there may be partial penetration of the aerated jet surface via pulsating induction cavities plus air entrainment via jet self aeration before impact. Plunging jet air flow data displays the different types of entrainment mechanisms. Mono-phase diffusion models can be successfully adapted to describe the shear layer developing zone. The diffusion of the air bubbles is approximately a Gaussian self similar process. The mean bubble velocity profiles can be modelled using the Goertler Error function or Hyperbolic Tangent models. The bubble spectra is approximately Lognormal with a geometric mean diameter of 1.0-2.0mm for a range of jet velocities. A bubble Weber number is found to model the maximum bubble size of approximately 10mm diameter. An original adaptation of the potential flow solution for the vortex sheet is shown to be a simple and reasonably accurate finite amplitude model for water surface gravity waves, especially in deep water. This model has some interesting features, such as both vertical and horizontal asymmetry and standing wave water profile modelling. A simple and possibly insightful model of wave growth due to the wind is introduced, using a constant sea surface Reynolds number U*.sqrt(LF)/Gamma, where U* = wind friction velocity, L = wavelength, F = fetch, and Gamma = wave field vortex circulation per wavelength. The results may have application in the modelling of air - sea gas exchanges, predicting breaking wave forces on structures and the use of the planar plunging jet as an aeration device in industry.
Keyword aeration
plunging jets
air bubble entrainment
air-water mass transfer
plunging breaking waves
physical modelling
inception conditions
Additional Notes CUMMINGS, P.D. (1996). "Aeration due to Breaking Waves." Ph.D. thesis, Dept. of Civil Engrg., University of Queensland, Australia.

Document type: Thesis
Collection: School of Civil Engineering Publications
 
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Created: Tue, 18 Oct 2005, 10:00:00 EST by Hubert Chanson on behalf of Research Management Office