Water Consumption by Rusa Deer (Cervus Timorensis) Stags as Influenced by Different Types of Food

Yape Kii, W. and Dryden, G. McL. (2005) Water Consumption by Rusa Deer (Cervus Timorensis) Stags as Influenced by Different Types of Food. Animal Science, 80 1: 83-88. doi:10.1079/ASC40500083

Attached Files (Some files may be inaccessible until you login with your UQ eSpace credentials)
Name Description MIMEType Size Downloads
Water_consumptio.pdf Water_consumptio.pdf application/pdf 71.93KB 634

Author Yape Kii, W.
Dryden, G. McL.
Title Water Consumption by Rusa Deer (Cervus Timorensis) Stags as Influenced by Different Types of Food
Formatted title
Water consumption by rusa deer (Cervus timorensis) stags as infl uenced by
different types of food
Journal name Animal Science   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1357-7298
Publication date 2005-02-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1079/ASC40500083
Open Access Status File (Author Post-print)
Volume 80
Issue 1
Start page 83
End page 88
Total pages 6
Place of publication Cambridge, United Kingdom
Publisher Cambridge University Press
Collection year 2005
Language eng
Subject 300403 Animal Nutrition
630107 Minor livestock (e.g. horses, goats, deer)
Formatted abstract
During winter in southern Queensland, eight rusa deer stags aged 4 years were given ad libitum lucerne (Medicago sativa) hay and confi ned in individual metabolism pens for 26 days. Stags ate 2·04 kg dry matter (DM) per day and drank 6·4 kg water per day, while the drinking water : food DM ratio was 3·3 l/kg. In experiment 2, seven rusa stags were given ad libitum lucerne hay or oaten (Avena spp. ) hay with or without barley grain supplementation (200 g/day) for 56 days (four periods). This experiment was conducted from 26 July to 19 September 2001, when the stags were exhibiting the behaviour characteristic of the rut. Rusa stags ate 1·19 and 1·17 kg DM per day of lucerne and oaten hay respectively. Rusa stags given oaten hay drank slightly more water than those that received lucerne hay (5·34 and 4·47 kg/day, respectively). The drinking water : food DM ratios were 3·81 and 4·67 kg/kg for lucerne and oaten hay, respectively. Barley grain supplementation (200 g/day) had no infl uence on total food or water intakes of the rusa stags.
Keyword Cervus timorensis
rusa deer
drinking water
food intake
water intake
References Abdelatif, A. M. and Ahmed, M. M. M. 1992. Thermoregulation, water balance and plasma constituents in Sudanese desert sheep: responses to diet and solar radiation. Journal of Arid Environments 25: 387-395. Agricultural Research Council. 1980. The nutrient requirements of ruminant livestock. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Slough. Alexander, G. L. and Segiura, T. 1990. Pasture dry matter and drinking water intake of grazing red deer stags and steers. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 50: 55-58. Al-Homidan, A. and Ahmed, B. M. 2000. Productive performance and digestion kinetics of California rabbits as affected by combinations of ambient temperature and dietary crude fiber level. Egyptian Journal of Rabbit Science 10: 281-294. Bale-Therik, J. F., Kihe, J. N. and Bale, A. R. 1996. Feeding behaviour of Timor deer (Cervus timorensis). Proceedings of the eighth AAAP Animal Science Congress, Tokyo 2: 288-289. Barrell, G. K. and Topp, D. F. 1989. Water intake of red deer stags consuming dryland pasture or indoors on concentrated feeds. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 49: 21-24. Church, D. C. 1976. Water. In Digestive physiology and nutrition of ruminants, vol. 2 (ed. D. C. Church), pp. 4-24. O and B Books, Inc., Corvallis, Oregon. Cowan, R. T., Shackel, D. and Davison, T. M. 1978. Water intakes, milk yield and grazing behaviour of Friesian cows with restricted access to water in a tropical upland environment. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 18: 190-195. Daly, J. J. 1994. Wet as a shag, dry as a bone : drought in a variable climate. Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane. Domingue, B. M. F., Dellow, D. W., Wilson, P. R. and Barry, T. N. 1991. Nitrogen metabolism, rumen fermentation, and water absorption in red deer, goats, and sheep. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 34: 45-53. Fennessy, P. F., Greer, G. J. and Forss, D. A. 1980. Voluntary intake and digestion in red deer and sheep. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 40: 158-162. Goering, H. K. and Van Soest, P. J. 1970. Forage fi ber analysis. USDA-ARS, Washington, DC. Higginbotham, G. E., Torabi, M. and Huber, J. T. 1989. Influence of dietary protein concentration and degradability on performance of lactating cows during hot environmental temperatures. Journal of Dairy Science 72: 2554-2564. Hmeidan, M. C. and Dryden, G. McL. 1998. Effect of hay quality and grain supplementation on feed intake, live weight and digestibility in young rusa deer (Cervus timorensis) stags. Animal Production in Australia 22: 383 (abstr.). Holter, J. B. and Urban, W. E. 1992. Water partitioning and intake prediction in dry and lactating Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 75: 1472-1479. Holzer, Z., Tagari, H., Levy, D. and Volcani, R. 1976. Soaking of complete fattening ration high in poor roughage. 2. The effect of moisture content and of particle size of the roughage component on the performance of male cattle. Animal Production 22: 41-53. Kay, R. N. B. 1979. Seasonal changes of appetite in deer and sheep. ARC Research Review 5: 13-15. Knox, K. L., Nagy, J. G. and Brown, R. D. 1969. Water turnover in Mule deer. Journal of Wildlife Management 33: 389-393. Milne, J. A., Macrae, J. C., Spence, A. M. and Wilson, S. 1978. A comparison of the voluntary intake and digestion of a range of forage at different times of the year by the sheep and red deer. British Journal of Nutrition 40: 347-357. Misra, A. K. and Singh, K. 2002. Effect of water deprivation on dry matter intake, nutrient utilization and metabolic water production in goats under semi-arid zone of India. Small Ruminant Research 46: 159-165. National Research Council. 1981. Effect of environments on nutrient requirements of domestic animals. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. National Research Council. 2000. Nutrient requirements of beef cattle, seventh revised edition. Update. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. Norton, B. W. 1982. Differences between species in forage quality. In Nutritional limits to animal production from pastures (ed. J. B. Hacker), pp. 89-110. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal. Olsson, K., JoGiter-Hermelin, M., Hossaini-Hilali, J., Hydbring, E. and Dahlborn, K. 1995. Heat stress causes excessive drinking in fed and food deprived pregnant goats. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 110A: 309-317. Pond, W. G., Church, D. C. and Pond, K. R. 1995. Basic animal nutrition and feeding. John Wiley, New York. Puttoo, M. and Dryden, G. M. 1998. Response of rusa deer yearlings to forage and forage/concentrate diets. Animal Production in Australia 22: 336 (abstr. ). Puttoo, M., Dryden, G. M. and McCosker, J. E. 1998. Performance of weaned rusa (Cervus timorensis) deer given concentrates of varying protein content with sorghum hay. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 38: 33-39. Richards, J. I. 1985. Effect of high daytime temperatures on the intake and utilisation of water in lactating Friesian cows. Tropical Animal Health and Production 17: 209-217. Silanikove, N. 1992. Effect of water scarcity and hot environment temperature on appetite and digestion of ruminants. Livestock Production Science 30: 175-194. Sinclair, S. 1997a. Deer slaughter and venison production in Queensland: current status and implications with regard to export standard deer abattoir facilities. Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane. Sinclair, S. 1997b. Deer farming in Queensland. 1997 farm survey report. Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane. Sookhareea, R. 2001. The effect of castration on carcase and meat characteristics and digestive efficiency of male rusa (Cervus timorensis) deer. Ph. D. thesis, University of Queensland. Sookhareea, R. and Dryden, G. McL. 2004. Consumption and digestion of forages by male rusa (Cervus timorensis) deer - the effects of castration and season. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 17: 1098-1106. Sookhareea, R., Woodford, K. A. and Dryden, G. McL. 2001. The effect of castration on growth and body composition of Javan rusa stags. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 14: 608-614. Squires, V. R. 1993. Water and its functions, regulation and comparative use by ruminant livestock. In The ruminant animal. Digestive physiology and nutrition (ed. D. C. Church), pp. 217-226. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Statistical Analysis Systems Package. 1989. SAS/STAT TM user's guide release 6.12 edition. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC. Tinworth, T. R. H., Barry, T. N. and Wilson, P. R. 1999. The effect of wilting chicory on its voluntary feed intake and digestion by red deer. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 133: 217-221. Tomkins, N. W. and McMeniman, N. P. 1996. Nitrogen metabolism in rusa deer (Cervus timorensis). Animal Production in Australia 21: 255-257. Vercoe, J. E., Frisch, J. E. and Moran, J. B. 1972. Apparent digestibility, nitrogen utilization, water metabolism and heat tolerance of Brahman cross, Africander cross and Shorthorn X Hereford steers. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 79: 71-74. Warren, L. K., Lawrence, L. M., Brewster-Barnes, T., Powell, D. M. and Jeffcot, L. B. 1999. The effect of dietary fi bre on hydration status after dehydration with frusemide. Equine Veterinary Journal 30: 508-513. Winchester, C. F. and Morris, M. J. 1965. Water intake rates of cattle. Journal of Animal Science 15: 722-740.
Q-Index Code C1
Institutional Status UQ
Additional Notes Reproduced with permission of the British Society of Animal Science. Copyright 2005 British Society of Animal Science

Version Filter Type
Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 1 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 0 times in Scopus Article
Google Scholar Search Google Scholar
Created: Fri, 16 Jun 2006, 10:00:00 EST by Jo Spicer on behalf of School of Animal Studies