Association of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Disease With Depression in Later Life

Almeida, Osvaldo P., Flicker, Leon, Norman, Paul, Hankey, Graeme J., Vasikaran, Samuel, van Bockxmeer, Frank M. and Jamrozik, Konrad (2007) Association of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Disease With Depression in Later Life. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15 6: 506-513. doi:10.1097/01.JGP.0000246869.49892.77

Author Almeida, Osvaldo P.
Flicker, Leon
Norman, Paul
Hankey, Graeme J.
Vasikaran, Samuel
van Bockxmeer, Frank M.
Jamrozik, Konrad
Title Association of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Disease With Depression in Later Life
Journal name American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1064-7481
Publication date 2007
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1097/01.JGP.0000246869.49892.77
Volume 15
Issue 6
Start page 506
End page 513
Total pages 8
Place of publication Washington, DC
Publisher American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry
Collection year 2008
Language eng
Subject C1
321003 Cardiology (incl. Cardiovascular Diseases)
730202 Men's health
321202 Epidemiology
730106 Cardiovascular system and diseases
1117 Public Health and Health Services
Formatted abstract

Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the association between established cardiovascular risk factors and depression among older men.

Methods: The authors conducted a cross-sectional study of a community-representative sample of 5,439 men aged 71-89 years. Cardiovascular disease and risk factors assessed included history of diabetes, hypertension, angina, myocardial infarction, and stroke; current smoking; total cholesterol and fractions; triglycerides; total plasma homocysteine; and MTHFR677 genotype. Depression was defined by a Geriatric Depression Scale 15 items score of 7 or greater.

Results: A complete data set was available for 4,204 men, of whom 212 were depressed (5%). Men who were depressed reported higher frequency of diabetes (23.1% versus 13.2%), angina (30.2% versus 20.4%), myocardial infarction (26.2% versus 16.0%), and stroke (23.6% versus 9.1%) than nondepressed men. Participants with depression were also more likely to have plasma homocysteine above 15 μmol/L (39.1% versus 25.5%) and high triglycerides (32.1% versus 20.9%) than nondepressed subjects. Depressed older men were also more likely to be active smokers (9.9% versus 4.8%). The other factors measured in the study were not significantly associated with depression. Estimation of the population-attributable fraction (PAF) after logistic regression showed that high plasma homocysteine had the highest PAF for depression (PAF:15%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 5%-23%) followed by high triglycerides (PAF: 11%, 95% CI: 2%-18%), angina (PAF: 9%, 95% CI: 2%-15%), stroke (PAF: 8%, 95% CI: 3%-13%), diabetes (PAF: 7%, 95% CI: 1%-13%), myocardial infarction (PAF: 5%, 95% CI: 0%-11%), and smoking (PAF: 5%, 95% CI: 1%-9%).

Conclusions: High plasma homocysteine and triglycerides appear to account for a considerable proportion of cases of depression in older men. The successful management of these risk factors may contribute to decrease the prevalence of depression in later life.

Keyword Geriatrics & Gerontology
mood disorder
mental health
cardiovascular disease
myocardial infarction
Density-lipoprotein Cholesterol
British Womens Heart
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase
Plasma Homocysteine
Older Men
References The American journal of geriatric psychiatry is the Official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry
Q-Index Code C1

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Created: Thu, 16 Aug 2007, 10:07:19 EST