We describe transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) in 2 acute leukemia cases to increase awareness of this under reported serious transfusion complication syndrome in multitransfused patients. There are a number of reports in multitransfused patients with nonmalignant disorders. However, reports of pediatric oncology patients are few, suggesting a lack of recognition or misdiagnosis of the syndrome. A disproportionately high number of fatalities in children is recorded in the literature. This highlights the need for increased awareness and appropriate treatment of this serious complication of transfusion. Although TRALI is initially a clinical diagnosis, the laboratory investigation is vital as it contributes to defining the pathogenesis of the syndrome and importantly facilitates the effective management of implicated donations and donors. An investigational strategy for suspected cases is presented and the results are discussed in the context of current proposed mechanisms for TRALI. As each transfused blood product is associated with a potential risk of TRALI, more frequent reports in patients receiving large volume or recurrent transfusion would be expected.