Short-term resistance training and the older adult: The effect of varied programmes for the enhancement of muscle strength and functional performance

Henwood, Tim R. and Taaffe, Dennis R. (2006) Short-term resistance training and the older adult: The effect of varied programmes for the enhancement of muscle strength and functional performance. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, 26 5: 305-313. doi:10.1111/j.1475-097X.2006.00695.x


Author Henwood, Tim R.
Taaffe, Dennis R.
Title Short-term resistance training and the older adult: The effect of varied programmes for the enhancement of muscle strength and functional performance
Journal name Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1475-0961
Publication date 2006
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1111/j.1475-097X.2006.00695.x
Volume 26
Issue 5
Start page 305
End page 313
Total pages 9
Editor P. Wollmer
Place of publication Oxford, U.K.
Publisher Blackwell Publishing
Collection year 2006
Language eng
Subject C1
321401 Exercise Physiology
730203 Health related to ageing
Formatted abstract
Although it is well recognized that resistance training is an efficient strategy to enhance physical performance in older adults, less is known about the most effective type of resistive exercise or the role of functional training. This study compared the effectiveness of three varied short-term (8 weeks) training protocols on muscle strength and functional performance in older men and women aged 65–84 years. Participants underwent twice-weekly high-velocity varied-resistance training (HV), twice weekly slow to moderate-velocity constant-resistance training (CT), combined once weekly high-velocity varied-resistance and once weekly gymnasium-based functional training (CB) or no training (CO). Dynamic muscle strength (1RM) of six muscle groups was assessed using isotonic equipment and functional performance by a battery of tests. Following 8 weeks of training, whole-body muscle strength increased (P<0·001) by 22·0 ± 12·5% (mean ± SD), 21·7 ± 11·0% and 26·1 ±14·4% in HV, CT and CB, respectively, compared to CO (−1·8 ± 7·2%). In between group comparisons, only the HV group displayed greater chair rise ability (P =0·010) than the CO group, while differences among groups approached significance for the fast 6-m walk and the stair climb test (P = 0·017 and 0·041 respectively). Within groups, the HV group significantly improved in stair-climbing and chair rise ability (P≤0·001) while CB improved in the fast 6-m walk (P = 0·003) and CT improved their static balance, as assessed by the functional reach test (P<0·001). This study indicates that twice weekly high-velocity resistance training is superior to strength and combined functional and resistance training for improving some power-orientated functional tasks. Although other functional performance improvements were modest among the training protocols, short-term combined once weekly resistance and once weekly functional training in older adults was as effective in enhancing muscle strength as twice-weekly resistance training. These results have important implications for older adults who are unable or unwilling to frequently attend exercise facilities.
Keyword Functional Ability
Gymnasium-based
High-velocity
Muscle Function
Physiology
Physical Performance
High-intensity
Skeletal-muscle
Women
Power
Exercise
People
Men
Mobility
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

 
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Created: Wed, 15 Aug 2007, 09:13:38 EST