The dairy industry is a global industry that provides significant nutritional benefit to many cultures. in australia the industry is especially important economically, being a large export earner, as well as a vital domestic sector. in recent years the sector has come under increased competitive pressure and has restructured to cope with the changes. the industry recently undertook an eco-efficiency project to investigate where business and environmental improvements might be found. the project involved collecting and collating previous project data and surveying 38 companies in different dairy operations, from market milk to dried products. after the survey, 10 sites in two states were visited to discuss eco-efficiency issues in detail with key players. From the surveys, visits and data compilation, a comprehensive manual was prepared to help interested companies find relevant eco-efficiency data easily and assist them in the implementation process. ten fact sheets were also produced covering the topics of water management, water recycling and re-use, refrigeration optimisation, boiler optimisation, biogas, the use of treated wastewater, yield optimisation and product recovery, optimisation of ciP systems, chemical use and membranes the project highlighted the large amount of technical and engineering expertise within the sector that could result in eco-efficiency outcomes and also identified the opportunities that exist for changes to occur in some operations to save energy, input raw materials and water.