This study tested the hypothesis derived from social pain theory (MacDonald & Leary, 2005) that pain affect serves as a signal of perceived social exclusion. Participants ranging in experience of persistent physical pain completed measures of pain affect, anxious and avoidant attachment, anxiety, and depression. Higher levels of pain affect were found to relate to higher levels of anxious, but not avoidant, attachment. Further, anxious attachment partially mediated the relation between pain affect and emotional distress. These data support the conclusion that one reason individuals with persistent pain experience anxiety and depression is because of heightened concerns over rejection. The data also support the conclusion that anxious attachment is more strongly related to the fight-flight-freezing system than avoidant attachment.