Bilberry adulteration using the food dye amaranth

Penman, K. G., Halstead, C. W., Matthias, A., De Voss, J. J., Stuthe, J. M. U., Bone, K. M. and Lehmann, R. P. (2006) Bilberry adulteration using the food dye amaranth. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54 19: 7378-7382. doi:10.1021/jf061387d

Author Penman, K. G.
Halstead, C. W.
Matthias, A.
De Voss, J. J.
Stuthe, J. M. U.
Bone, K. M.
Lehmann, R. P.
Title Bilberry adulteration using the food dye amaranth
Journal name Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0021-8561
Publication date 2006
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1021/jf061387d
Volume 54
Issue 19
Start page 7378
End page 7382
Total pages 5
Place of publication Washington
Publisher American Chemical Society
Collection year 2006
Language eng
Subject C1
250302 Biological and Medical Chemistry
780103 Chemical sciences
Abstract Vaccinium myrtillus or bilberry fruit is a commonly used herbal product. The usual method of determining the anthocyanin content is a single-wavelength spectrophotometric assay. Using this method, anthocyanin levels of two extracts were found to be 25% as claimed by the manufacturers. When high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used, however, one extract was found to contain 9% anthocyanins probably not derived from V. myrtillus but from an adulterant. This adulterant was subsequently identified, using HPLC, mass spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance, as amaranth, that is, 3-hydroxy-4-[(4-sulfo-1-naphthalenyl)azo]-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid trisodium saltsa synthetic dark red sulfonic acid based naphthylazo dye. As described in this study, if deliberate adulteration occurs in an extract, a single-wavelength spectrophotometric assay is inadequate to accurately determine the levels of compounds such as anthocyanins. Detection of deliberate adulteration in commercial samples thus requires the use of alternative, more sophisticated, methods of analysis such as HPLC with photodiode array detection as a minimum.
Keyword Bilberry
Agriculture, Multidisciplinary
Chemistry, Applied
Food Science & Technology
Q-Index Code C1

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Created: Wed, 15 Aug 2007, 08:28:11 EST