Renal disease, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease

Hoy, Wendy E., Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas, McDonald, Stephen and Wang, Zhiqiang (2006) Renal disease, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Ethnicity and Disease, 16 Suppl. 2: 46-51.

Author Hoy, Wendy E.
Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas
McDonald, Stephen
Wang, Zhiqiang
Title Renal disease, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease
Journal name Ethnicity and Disease   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1049-510X
Publication date 2006
Sub-type Article (original research)
Volume 16
Issue Suppl. 2
Start page 46
End page 51
Total pages 6
Editor K. C. Norris
Place of publication Arlington, VA, United States
Publisher International Society on Hypertension in Blacks
Collection year 2006
Language eng
Subject 321200 Public Health and Health Services
321207 Indigenous Health
321202 Epidemiology
730200 Public Health
730206 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health
Formatted abstract
To describe the association between renal disease and other features of the metabolic syndrome and its derivative illnesses among Australian Aborigines in remote settings.


Volunteering adults (N=2019) in four remote communities were screened for risk factors and markers of renal disease, hypertension, and diabetes, and their crosssectional associations were evaluated. Rates of the metabolic syndrome were estimated in one community with comprehensive screening data. The associations of albuminuria with hospitalizations, coronary heart events, and non-renal deaths were then followed for > 7 years in that same community.

Rates of renal disease, hypertension, and diabetes all increased dramatically with age. They all overlapped. Renal disease and hypertension were the most prominent and earliest features of the syndrome, while diabetes was a later, less common and more variable manifestation. All were strongly correlated with waist measurements, and high waist measurements more comprehensively characterized those with illnesses than did the more restrictive definitions of the metabolic syndrome. Albuminuria predicted non-renal hospitalizations, first time coronary heart disease events, and all-cause death.


Albuminuria/proteinuria is an early and dominant element of a symptom complex that is marked by higher waist measurements, and it strongly predicts all-cause and cardiovascular illnesses and deaths. This finding implies a common background of risk factors for renal disease, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk. The findings support integrated, rather than disease-specific, surveillance programs, an important role for albuminuria in predicting non-renal risk, and a unified approach for primary and secondary prevention of all elements of the syndrome.
Keyword Australian Aborigines
Metabolic syndrome
Kidney disease
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Excellence in Research Australia (ERA) - Collection
2007 Higher Education Research Data Collection
School of Medicine Publications
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 4 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
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Created: Wed, 15 Aug 2007, 08:15:29 EST