Resistance exercise dosage in older adults: Single-versus multiset effects on physical performance and body composition

Galvao, Daniel A. and Taaffe, Dennis R. (2005) Resistance exercise dosage in older adults: Single-versus multiset effects on physical performance and body composition. Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, 53 12: 2090-2097. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.00494.x


Author Galvao, Daniel A.
Taaffe, Dennis R.
Title Resistance exercise dosage in older adults: Single-versus multiset effects on physical performance and body composition
Journal name Journal of The American Geriatrics Society   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0002-8614
Publication date 2005
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.00494.x
Volume 53
Issue 12
Start page 2090
End page 2097
Total pages 8
Editor T.T. Yoshikawa
Place of publication Oxford, UK
Publisher Blackwell Scientific
Collection year 2005
Language eng
Subject C1
321401 Exercise Physiology
730203 Health related to ageing
Formatted abstract
Objectives: To determine whether variation in resistance exercise volume affects muscle function and physical performance response in older adults.

Design: A randomized trial with subjects assigned to a single-set (1-SET) or three-set (3-SET) exercise group.

Setting: An exercise facility at the University of Queensland.

Participants: Twenty-eight community-dwelling men and women aged 65 to 78.

Intervention: Progressive resistance training consisting of seven exercises targeting the major muscle groups of the upper and lower body performed on exercise machines twice weekly for 20 weeks at eight-repetition maximum (RM) intensity.

Measurements: Muscle function included isotonic muscle strength (1-RM) of the seven exercises, isokinetic and isometric knee extensor strength, and muscle endurance for the chest press and leg press exercises. Physical performance included timed chair rise, usual and fast 6-m walk, 6-m backwards walk, 400-m walk, floor rise to standing, and stair climbing ability. In addition, body composition was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry.

Results: Isotonic muscle strength increased in both exercise groups for all seven exercises (P<.01), with the gain in the 3-SET group greater (P<.05) for the seated row, triceps extension, and knee extension (analysis of covariance). Similarly, muscle endurance gains were greater for the 3-SET than the 1-SET group (P<.01), with no significant difference between groups for isokinetic and isometric knee extensor strength. Both groups improved (P<.05) in the chair rise (1-SET, 10.1%; 3-SET, 13.6%), 6-m backwards walk (1-SET, 14.3%; 3-SET, 14.8%), 400-m walk (1-SET, 3.8%; 3-SET, 7.4%), and stair climbing test (1-SET, 7.7%; 3-SET, 6.4%), with the only difference between groups for the 400-m walk (P<.05). There was no difference between groups for change in body composition.

Conclusion: Resistance training consisting of only single-set exercises is sufficient to significantly enhance muscle function and physical performance, although muscle strength and endurance
Keyword Geriatrics & Gerontology
Gerontology
Resistance Exercise
Strength
Endurance
Physical Performance
Skeletal-muscle
High-intensity
Training Volume
Risk-factors
Women
Men
Age
Adaptations
Power
Q-Index Code C1

 
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Created: Wed, 15 Aug 2007, 06:37:03 EST