A framework of lessons learned from community-based marine reserves and its effectiveness in guiding a new coastal management initiative in the Philippines

Beger, M., Harborne, A. R., Dacles, T. P., Solandt, J.-L. and Ledesma, G. L. (2004) A framework of lessons learned from community-based marine reserves and its effectiveness in guiding a new coastal management initiative in the Philippines. Environmental Management, 34 6: 786-801. doi:10.1007/s00267-004-0149-z


Author Beger, M.
Harborne, A. R.
Dacles, T. P.
Solandt, J.-L.
Ledesma, G. L.
Title A framework of lessons learned from community-based marine reserves and its effectiveness in guiding a new coastal management initiative in the Philippines
Journal name Environmental Management   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0364-152X
Publication date 2004-12
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1007/s00267-004-0149-z
Volume 34
Issue 6
Start page 786
End page 801
Total pages 16
Editor R. S. de Santo
V. H. Dale
Place of publication New York, U.S.
Publisher Springer-Verlag
Collection year 2005
Language eng
Subject C1
300805 Conservation
770307 Marine protected areas
0602 Ecology
Abstract Community-based coastal resource management has been widely applied within the Philippines. However, small-scale community-based reserves are often inefficient owing to management inadequacies arising because of a lack of local support or enforcement or poor design. Because there are many potential pitfalls during the establishment of even small community-based reserves, it is important for coastal managers, communities, and facilitating institutions to have access to a summary of the key factors for success. Reviewing relevant literature, we present a framework of lessons learned during the establishment of protected areas, mainly in the Philippines. The framework contains summary guidance on the importance of (1) an island location, (2) small community population size, (3) minimal effect of land-based development, (4) application of a bottom-up approach, (5) an external facilitating institution, (6) acquisition of title, (7) use of a scientific information database, (8) stakeholder involvement, (9) the establishment of legislation, (10) community empowerment, (11) alternative livelihood schemes, (12) surveillance, (13) tangible management results, (14) continued involvement of external groups after reserve establishment, and (15) small-scale project expansion. These framework components guided the establishment of a community-based protected area at Danjugan Island, Negros Occidental, Philippines. This case study showed that the framework was a useful guide that led to establishing and implementing a community-based marine reserve. Evaluation of the reserve using standard criteria developed for the Philippines shows that the Danjugan Island protected area can be considered successful and sustainable. At Danjugan Island, all of the lessons synthesized in the framework were important and should be considered elsewhere, even for relatively small projects. As shown in previous projects in the Philippines, local involvement and stewardship of the protected area appeared particularly important for its successful implementation. The involvement of external organizations also seemed to have a key role in the success of the Danjugan Island project by guiding local decision-makers in the sociobiological principles of establishing protected areas. However, the relative importance of each component of the framework will vary between coastal management initiatives both within the Philippines and across the wider Asian region.
Keyword Marine protected area
Marine resource management
Community-based coral reef conservation
Philippines
Alternative livelihood
Lessons learned
Q-Index Code C1

 
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