Purpose: To review the results and techniques of surgical treatment of consecutive exotropia. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients who underwent surgery for consecutive exotropia in a pediatric ophthalmology practice between 1992 and 2001. Patients were excluded if follow-up lasted < 6 weeks or if exotropia was caused by other ocular disorders such as previous trauma or congenital cataracts. Results: Fifty-nine patients were identified. The procedure performed in the majority of cases was unilateral lateral rectus recession and medial rectus advancement to the original insertion. Seven patients underwent bilateral lateral rectus recession, and 6 underwent lateral rectus recession combined with medial rectus resection. The mean interval between original surgery and surgery for consecutive exotropia was 14.1 years (range 4 months to 47.5 years). The mean preoperative distance exodeviation was 31.7 prism diopters (PD). Satisfactory alignment lie, within 10 PD of orthophoria) was achieved in 36 patients (61%) at week 1 and 42 patients (71%) at final follow-up. Mean follow up was 16.0 months. Thirty-nine patients (66%) demonstrated an exodrift after surgery (mean 7.6 PD). Conclusion: Consecutive exotropia may occur many years, even decades, after esotropia surgery. Lateral rectus recession with advancement of the previously recessed medial rectus is an effective treatment. An exotropic drift occurs after consecutive exotropia surgery, usually within the first 6 weeks. A suitable ocular alignment immediately after surgery for consecutive exotropia is a small-angle esotropia of 5 to 10 PD.