Adverse Health Effects of Chronic Exposure to Low-Level Cadmium in Foodstuffs and Cigarette Smoke

Satarug, Soisungwan and Moore, Michael R. (2004) Adverse Health Effects of Chronic Exposure to Low-Level Cadmium in Foodstuffs and Cigarette Smoke. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112 10: 1099-1103.


Author Satarug, Soisungwan
Moore, Michael R.
Title Adverse Health Effects of Chronic Exposure to Low-Level Cadmium in Foodstuffs and Cigarette Smoke
Journal name Environmental Health Perspectives   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0091-6765
Publication date 2004
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1289/ehp.6751
Volume 112
Issue 10
Start page 1099
End page 1103
Total pages 5
Place of publication Research Triangle Park, USA
Publisher US Dept Health Human Sciences Public Health Science
Collection year 2004
Language eng
Subject C1
321299 Public Health and Health Services not elsewhere classified
730210 Environmental health
Abstract Cadmium is a cumulative nephrotoxicant that is absorbed into the body from dietary sources and cigarette smoking. The levels of Cd in organs such as liver and kidney cortex increase with age because of the lack of an active biochemical process for its elimination coupled with renal reabsorption. Recent research has provided evidence linking Cd-related kidney dysfunction and decreases in bone mineral density in nonoccupationally exposed populations who showed no signs of nutritional deficiency. This challenges the previous view that the concurrent kidney and bone damage seen in Japanese itai-itai disease patients was the result of Cd toxicity in combination with nutritional deficiencies, notably, of zinc and calcium. Further, such Cd-linked bone and kidney toxicities were observed in people whose dietary Cd intakes were well within the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) set by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives of 1 mug/kg body weight/day or 70 mug/day. This evidence points to the much-needed revision of the current PTWI for Cd. Also, evidence for the carcinogenic risk of chronic Cd exposure is accumulating and Cd effects on reproductive outcomes have begun to emerge.
Keyword Environmental Sciences
Public, Environmental & Occupational Health
Prostate Epithelial-cells
Environmental Cadmium
Renal Dysfunction
General-population
Occupational Exposure
Bone-density
Body Burden
Vitamin-d
Kidney
Cancer
Q-Index Code C1

 
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