Epidermal cell proliferation in the equine hoof wall

Daradka, M. and Pollitt, C. C. (2004) Epidermal cell proliferation in the equine hoof wall. Equine Veterinary Journal, 36 3: 236-241. doi:10.2746/0425164044877198

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Author Daradka, M.
Pollitt, C. C.
Title Epidermal cell proliferation in the equine hoof wall
Journal name Equine Veterinary Journal   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0425-1644
Publication date 2004-04
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.2746/0425164044877198
Open Access Status File (Author Post-print)
Volume 36
Issue 3
Start page 236
End page 241
Total pages 6
Editor Equine Veterinary Journal Ltd
Place of publication United Kingdom
Publisher Equine Vet. Journal Ltd.
Collection year 2004
Language eng
Subject C1
780105 Biological sciences
300501 Veterinary Medicine
Formatted abstract
Reasons for performing study: Current theories explaining how the hoof wall 'grows' and moves past the stationary distal phalanx are speculative and based on incomplete evidence. Movement in the lamellar region could occur by cell proliferation or an enzyme-based remodelling process. Since laminitis pathogenesis appears to involve increased transcription and activation of enzymes normally involved in tissue remodelling, it is important to know precisely which process dominates the lamellar region of the hoof.

Objectives: T o investigate epidermal cell proliferation in the equine hoof wall and calculate a proliferative index (PI) for the coronet, lamellae and toe.

Methods: An analogue of thymidine, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BRdU), was infused i.v. into 5 ponies. After tissue harvesting, BRdU (and therefore basal cell proliferation) was detected immunohistochemically using mouse anti-BRdU. PIs were calculated for the coronet and 10 levels of the dorsal hoof wall lamellae.

Results: The highest PIs (mean ± s.e.) were in the coronet; 12.04%± 1.59 and proximal lamellae (7.13%± 1.92) and are therefore growth zones of the proximal hoof wall. PIs of more distal lamellae were 0.11%± 0.04 to 0.97%± 0.29; significantly lower (P = 0.05) than the lamellar growth zone.

Conclusions: A 20-fold PI decrease between proximal and more distal lamellae suggests that the majority of the normal lamellae are nonproliferative and their main function is to suspend the distal phalanx within the hoof capsule. Remodelling within the hoof wall epidermal lamellae, which must occur as the hoof wall moves past the stationary distal phalanx, is a process not requiring epidermal cell proliferation.

Potential relevance: A hoof lamellar epidermis that remodels using the same MMPs involved in laminitis pathogenesis implies that laminitis is a normal process out of control. Understanding MMP control and how the normal lamellar epidermis achieves this will help in the development of better laminitis preventative and treatment strategies.
Keyword Equine
Hoof Wall
Veterinary Sciences
Hoof Wall Epidermis
Proliferative Index
Wool Follicle
Matrix Metalloproteinases
Q-Index Code C1

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Created: Wed, 15 Aug 2007, 03:50:31 EST