In recent years, nanomaterials have been a core focus of nanoscience and nanotechnology - which is an ever-growing multidisciplinary field ofstudy attracting tremendous interest, investment and effort in research and development around the world. Nanoporous materials as a subset of nanostructured materials possess unique surface, structural, and bulk properties that underline their important uses in various fields such as ionexchange, separation, catalysis, sensor, biological molecular isolation and purifications. Nanoporous materials are also of scientific and technological importance because of their vast ability to adsorb and interact with atoms, ions and molecules on their large interior surfaces and in the nanometer sized pore space. They offer new opportunities in areas of inclusion chemistry, guest-host synthesis and molecular manipulations and reactionin the nanoscale for making nanoparticles, nanowires and other quantum nanostructures.
To provide a comprehensive overview of the area of nanoporous materials, this chapter will begin with a brief introduction to nanoscience and nanotechnology, and the importance of nanomaterials. The basic concepts and definitions in relation to porous materials and nanoporousmaterials will be given to understand the context of nanoporous materials.Following this introduction, a systematical classification of the types andscope of nanoporous materials will be presented. The properties and their characterisation and measurement methods will be briefly described before major applications in various fields are reviewed. Finally in this chapter,key scientific and engineering issues and future directions are identified as challenges and opportunities to researchers in this field.