A Century of Change in Coral Reef Status in Southeast and Central Pacific: Polynesia Mana Node, Cook Islands, French Polynesia, Kiribati, Niue, Tokelau, Tonga, Wallis and Futuna

Vieux, C., Aubanel, A., Axford, J. C., Chancerelle, Y., Fisk, D., Holland, P., Juncker, M., Kirata, T., Kronen, M., Osenberg, C., Pasisi, B., Power, M., Salvat, B., Shima, J. and Vavia, V. (2004). A Century of Change in Coral Reef Status in Southeast and Central Pacific: Polynesia Mana Node, Cook Islands, French Polynesia, Kiribati, Niue, Tokelau, Tonga, Wallis and Futuna. In Clive Wilkinson (Ed.), Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2004 (pp. 363-380) Townsville, Queensland, Australia: Australian Institute of Marine Science.


Author Vieux, C.
Aubanel, A.
Axford, J. C.
Chancerelle, Y.
Fisk, D.
Holland, P.
Juncker, M.
Kirata, T.
Kronen, M.
Osenberg, C.
Pasisi, B.
Power, M.
Salvat, B.
Shima, J.
Vavia, V.
Title of chapter A Century of Change in Coral Reef Status in Southeast and Central Pacific: Polynesia Mana Node, Cook Islands, French Polynesia, Kiribati, Niue, Tokelau, Tonga, Wallis and Futuna
Title of book Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2004
Place of Publication Townsville, Queensland, Australia
Publisher Australian Institute of Marine Science
Publication Year 2004
Sub-type Other
Editor Clive Wilkinson
Volume number 2
Chapter number 13
Start page 363
End page 380
Total pages 18
Total chapters 21
Collection year 2004
Language eng
Subjects 300704 Ecosystem Studies and Stock Assessment
770399 Other
BX
0502 Environmental Science and Management
0602 Ecology
Abstract/Summary The Polynesia Mana Node of the southeast and central Pacific contains 7 independent or autonomous countries or territories with only 6,000 km2 of land on 347 islands, but surrounded by 12 million km2 of EEZ. These seas contain 13,000 km2 of coral reefs as the main natural ecosystem providing food resources and opportunities for development, especially for tourism and pearl culture for 500,000 inhabitants. During the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries, there was major exploitation by the colonial powers of mother-of-pearl oysters for the button industry, as well as guano, sandalwood and trepang. The Polynesian people were largely involved in a subsistence economy and all coral reefs and lagoons were healthy. During the last two decades of the 20th, all countries experienced rapid development and urbanization, rising populations, and some increased agriculture. These developments were limited to a few islands of each country (i.e. 15 islands amongst the 347) with resulting degradation of the coral reefs around these sites. The other islands remained mostly uninhabited and pristine, and continued with a subsistence economy. Generally, there was more damage to the coral reefs through natural events such as cyclones and coral bleaching, than by human activities. There is however, an urgent need to combat the threats on some islands from increased sedimentation, over-fishing, dredging and nutrient pollution.
Keyword Coral reefs
Change
Southeast Pacific
Central Pacific
Q-Index Code BX
Additional Notes ISSN 1447-6185

Document type: Book Chapter
Collection: School of Agriculture and Food Sciences
 
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Created: Tue, 14 Aug 2007, 11:49:15 EST