This chapter outlines the relationships between a number of key factors that influence learning and memory, and illustrates them by reference to studies on the foraging behaviour of fish. Learning can lead to significant improvements in foraging performance in only a few exposures, and at least some fish species are capable of adjusting their foraging strategy as patterns of patch profitability change. There is also evidence that the memory window for prey varies between fish species, and that this may be a function of environmental predictability. Convergence between behavioural ecology and comparative psychology offers promise in terms of developing more mechanistically realistic foraging models and explaining apparently 'suboptimal' patterns of behaviour. Foraging decisions involve the interplay between several distinct systems of learning and memory, including those that relate to habitat, food patches, prey types, conspecifics and predators. Fish biologists, therefore, face an interesting challenge in developing integrated accounts of fish foraging that explain how cognitive sophistication can help individual animals to deal with the complexity of the ecological context.