The outcome in Australian children with hyperinsulinism of infancy: early extensive surgery in severe cases lowers risk of diabetes

Jack, M. M., Greer, R. M., Thomsett, M. J., Walker, R. M., Bell, J. R., Choong, C., Cowley, D. M., Herington, A. C. and Cotterill, A. M. (2003) The outcome in Australian children with hyperinsulinism of infancy: early extensive surgery in severe cases lowers risk of diabetes. Clinical Endocrinology, 58 3: 355-364. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2265.2003.01725.x


Author Jack, M. M.
Greer, R. M.
Thomsett, M. J.
Walker, R. M.
Bell, J. R.
Choong, C.
Cowley, D. M.
Herington, A. C.
Cotterill, A. M.
Title The outcome in Australian children with hyperinsulinism of infancy: early extensive surgery in severe cases lowers risk of diabetes
Journal name Clinical Endocrinology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0300-0664
1365-2265
Publication date 2003-01-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1046/j.1365-2265.2003.01725.x
Volume 58
Issue 3
Start page 355
End page 364
Total pages 10
Editor J. A. Franklin
P. M. Stewart
Place of publication Oxford, U.K.
Publisher Blackwell Publishing
Collection year 2003
Language eng
Subject C1
730105 Endocrine organs and diseases (incl. diabetes)
730204 Child health
110306 Endocrinology
111403 Paediatrics
Abstract AIMS Hyperinsulinism of infancy (HI) is characterized by unregulated insulin secretion in the presence of hypoglycaemia, often resulting in brain damage. Pancreatic resection for control of hypoglycaemia is frequently resisted because of the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM). We investigated retrospectively 62 children with HI from nine Australian treatment centres born between 1972 and 1998, comparing endocrine and neurological outcome in 28 patients receiving medical therapy alone with 34 who required pancreatic resection to control their hypoglycaemia. METHODS History, treatment and clinical course were ascertained from file audit and interview. Risk of DM (hazard ratio) attributable to age at surgery (< vs. greater than or equal to 100 days at last pancreatectomy) and extent of resection (< vs. greater than or equal to 95%) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression and categorical variables compared by the chi(2) -test. Neurological outcome (normal, mild deficit or severe deficit) was derived from the most authoritative source. RESULTS Surgically treated patients had a greater birthweight, earlier presentation and higher plasma insulin levels. Of 18 infants < 100 days and 16 greater than or equal to 100 days of age at surgery, four (all greater than or equal to 100 days) became diabetic as an immediate consequence of surgery and five (two < 100 days and three greater than or equal to 100 days) became diabetic 7-18 years later. Surgery greater than or equal to 100 days and pancreatectomy greater than or equal to 95% were associated with development of diabetes (HR = 12.61, CI 1.53-104.07 and HR = 7.03, CI 1.43-34.58, respectively). Neurodevelopmental outcome was no different between the surgical and medical groups with 44% overall with neurological deficits. Patients euglycaemic within 35 days of the first symptom of hypoglycaemia (Group A) had a better neurodevelopmental outcome than those still hypoglycaemic > 35 days from first presentation (Group B) (P = 0.007). Prolonged hypoglycaemia in Group B was due either to delayed diagnosis or to need for repeat surgery because of continued hypoglycaemia. Within Group A, medically treated patients (who presented later with apparently milder disease) had a higher incidence of neurodevelopmental deficit (n = 15, four mild, three severe deficit) compared with surgically treated patients (n = 18, two mild, none severe deficit) (P < 0.025). CONCLUSIONS Poor neurodevelopmental outcome remains a major problem in hyperinsulinism of infancy. Risk of diabetes mellitus with pancreatectomy varies according to age at surgery and extent of resection. Patients presenting early with severe disease have a better neurodevelopmental outcome and lower risk of diabetes if they are treated with early extensive surgery.
Keyword Endocrinology & Metabolism
Term Follow-up
95-percent Pancreatectomy
Surgical-treatment
Hypoglycemia
Nesidioblastosis
Experience
Definition
Pancreas
Q-Index Code C1

 
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Created: Wed, 15 Aug 2007, 12:44:26 EST