In Australia people aged 65 years or older currently comprise 12.1% of the population. This has been estimated to rise to 24.2% by 2051. Until recently there has been relatively little research on alcohol and other drug use disorders among these individuals but, given the ageing population, this issue is likely to become of increasing importance and prominence. Epidemiological research shows a strong age-related decline in the prevalence of alcohol and other drug use disorders with age. Possible reasons for this include: age-related declines in the use and misuse of alcohol and other drugs; increased mortality among those with a lifetime history of alcohol and other drug use disorders; historical differences in exposure to and use of alcohol and other drugs. Despite the age-related decline in the prevalence of these disorders, they do still occur among those aged 65 years or older and, given historical changes in exposure to and use of illicit drugs, it likely that the prevalence of these disorders among older-aged individuals will rise. Specific issues faced by older-aged individuals with alcohol and other drug use problems are discussed. These include: interactions with prescribed medications, under-recognition and treatment of alcohol and drug problems, unintentional injury and social isolation. Finally, a brief discussion of treatment issues is provided.