The Entodiniomorphida are a diverse and morphologically complex group of ciliates which are symbiotic within the digestive tracts of herbivorous mammals. Previous phylogenies of the group have exclusively considered members of one family, the Ophryoscolecidae, which are symbiotic within ruminants. We sought to improve understanding of evolution within the entodiniomorphs by expanding the range of ciliates examined to include the Cycloposthiidae and Macropodimidae (symbionts of equids and macropodids respectively). The entire SSU-rRNA gene was sequenced for 3 species, Cycloposthium edentatum, Macropodinium ennuensis and M. yalanbense, and aligned against 14 litostome species and 2 postciliodesmatophoran outgroup species. Cycloposthium was consistently grouped as the sister-taxon to the Ophryoscolecidae although support for this relationship was low. This suggests that there is more evolutionary distance between the Cycloposthiidae and Ophryoscolecidae than previously inferred from studies of gross morphology, cell ontogeny or ultrastructure. In contrast, Macropodinium did not group with any of the entodiniomorphs, instead forming the sister group to the entire Trichostomatia (Entodiniomorphida + Vestibuliferida). This early diverging position for the macropodiniids is concordant with their morphology and ontogeny which failed to group the family with any of the entodiniomorph suborders. The currently accepted classification of the Trichostomatia is thus deficient and in need of review.