Adaptation of rainbow fish to lake and stream habitats

McGuigan, Katrina, Franklin, Craig E., Moritz, Craig and Blows, Mark W. (2003) Adaptation of rainbow fish to lake and stream habitats. Evolution, 57 1: 104-118.


Author McGuigan, Katrina
Franklin, Craig E.
Moritz, Craig
Blows, Mark W.
Title Adaptation of rainbow fish to lake and stream habitats
Journal name Evolution   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0014-3820
Publication date 2003-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1554/0014-3820(2003)057[0104:AORFTL]2.0.CO;2
Volume 57
Issue 1
Start page 104
End page 118
Total pages 15
Place of publication Lawrence, KS
Publisher Society for the Study of Evolution
Collection year 2003
Language eng
Subject C1
270604 Comparative Physiology
779903 Living resources (flora and fauna)
Abstract Fish occupy a range of hydrological habitats that exert different demands on locomotor performance. We examined replicate natural populations of the rainbow fishes Melanotaenia eachamensis and M. duboulayi to determine if colonization of low-velocity (lake) habitats by fish from high-velocity (stream) habitats resulted in adaptation of locomotor morphology and performance. Relative to stream conspecifics, lake fish had more posteriorly positioned first dorsal and pelvic fins, and shorter second dorsal fin bases. Habitat dimorphism observed between wild-caught fish was determined to be heritable as it was retained in M. eachamensis offspring raised in a common garden. Repeated evolution of the same heritable phenotype in independently derived populations indicated body shape divergence was a consequence of natural selection. Morphological divergence between hydrological habitats did not support a priori expectations of deeper bodies and caudal peduncles in lake fish. However, observed divergence in fin positioning was consistent with a family-wide association between habitat and morphology, and with empirical studies on other fish species. As predicted, decreased demand for sustained swimming in takes resulted in a reduction in caudal red muscle area of lake fish relative to their stream counterparts. Melanotaenia duboulayi lake fish also had slower sustained swimming speeds (U-crit) than stream conspecifics. In M. eachamensis, habitat affected U-crit of males and females differently. Specifically, females exhibited the pattern observed in M. duboulayi (lake fish had faster U-crit than stream fish), but the opposite association was observed in males (stream males had slower Ucrit than lake males). Stream M. eachamensis also exhibited a reversed pattern of sexual dimorphism in U-crit (males slower than females) relative to all other groups (males faster than females). We suggest that M. eachamensis males from streams responded to factors other than water velocity. Although replication of muscle and U,,it phenotypes across same habitat populations within and/or among species was suggestive of adaptation, the common garden experiment did not confirm a genetic basis to these associations. Kinematic studies should consider the effect of the position and base length of dorsal fins.
Keyword Ecology
Evolutionary Biology
Genetics & Heredity
Burst Speed
Common Garden Experiment
Melanotaemidae
Morphology
Natural Selection
Red Muscle
U-crit
British-columbia Populations
Trout Oncorhynchus-mykiss
Critical Swimming Speed
Salvelinus-fontinalis
Whitefish Coregonus
Juvenile Salmonids
Body Morphology
Garter Snake
Brook Charr
Coho Salmon
Q-Index Code C1
Additional Notes DOI: 10.1111/j.0014-3820.2003.tb00219.x

 
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