Ascochyta blight, caused by Ascochyta lentis , is one of the most globally important diseases of lentil. Breeding for host resistance has been suggested as an efficient means to control this disease. This paper summarizes existing studies of the characteristics and control of Ascochyta blight in lentil, genetics of resistance to Ascochyta blight and genetic variations among pathogen populations (isolates). Breeding methods for control of the disease are discussed. Six pathotypes of A. lentis have been reported. Many resistant cultivars/lines have been identified in both cultivated and wild lentil. Resistance to Ascochyta blight in lentil is mainly under the control of major genes, but minor genes also play a role. Current breeding programmes are based on crossing resistant and high-yielding cultivars and multilocation testing. Gene pyramiding, exploring slow blighting and partial resistance, and using genes present in wild relatives will be the methods used in the future. Identification of more sources of resistance genes, good characterization of the host-pathogen system, and identification of molecular markers tightly linked to resistance genes are suggested as the key areas for future study.