The 29 Australian species of Clistoabdominalis Skevington are revised and a phylogenetic analysis is presented. The following 23 new species are proposed: Clistoabdominalis ancylus, C. angelikae, C. capillifascis, C. carnatistylus, C. collessi, C. colophus, C. condylostylus, C. danielsi, C. dasymelus, C. digitatus, C. exallus, C. gaban, C. gremialis, C. lambkinae, C. lingulatus, C. mathiesoni, C. nutatus, C. octiparvus, C. scalenus, C. scintillatus, C. tasmanicus, C. tharra, and C. yeatesi. Pipunculus picrodes Perkins is proposed as a junior synonym of C. trochanteratus (Becker). Diagnoses and an illustrated key to species are provided. A summary of host records for all Australian species of Pipunculidae is presented to clarify confusion in the literature. Pipunculidae are documented hilltopping for the first time. This mating strategy is used by many species of Clistoabdominalis and patterns of hilltopping within the genus are examined.