I examined age effects on reproduction in the Brown Thornbill Acanthiza pusilla in Canberra, Australia. I found that the reproductive performance of both males and females improved with age, although only age-related improvement in male performance had a significant effect on annual reproductive success. Reproductive success improved with male age as a result of improved performance during two stages of the breeding cycle: first-year males were less likely to fledge young than those aged two or more, while both first and second-year males were less successful at raising fledglings to independence than males of three or more. Male performance appears to improve over three years as they gain experience at provisioning nestlings and caring for fledglings without attracting predators, rather than as a direct result of improved foraging skills. In contrast, reproductive success only improved slightly with female age, although females of two or more years initiated their first clutch earlier in the season than one-year-old females, and tended to be mure likely to re-nest if a breeding attempt failed. The poor performance of young females appears unlikely to be related to their foraging ability but may be associated with costs imposed by dispersing to a breeding vacancy earlier in the year. Although the reproductive performance of Brown Thornbills improves considerably with age 1 found no evidence that performance improved as a result of repeated breeding attempts with the same partner.