Changes in chemical composition, physical and sensory characteristics were followed in two pecan cultivars Wichita and Western Schley harvested from a commercial orchard at Gatton in Queensland seven times during 1996. Testa colour of both pecan cultivars darkened and opalescence decreased as the nuts matured. Bitterness of Western Schley pecans decreased with maturity. Colour of shuck, shell and kernel of both cultivars developed as the nuts matured. Wichita pecans were larger than Western Schley at all harvest times. Both nut-in-shell and kernel moisture decreased with maturity, whereas oil and sucrose contents increased. Both pecan cultivars had reached advanced maturation by the first harvest on March 18.