There is now evidence to show that, as time passes, epilepsy, even if untreated, tends to undergo spontaneous remission in a significant proportion of patients. The question therefore arises as to whether anticonvulsant drug therapy increases this chance of the patient with epilepsy ultimately entering a terminal remission which continues after the treatment is withdrawn, Le. whether anticonvulsant drug therapy itself may sometimes cure epilepsy. There are no well-designed studies available in the literature that provide a clear answer to this question. However, data from a number of investigations carried out for other purposes can be used to see whether contemporary anticonvulsant drug therapy is associated with higher rates of expected untreated terminal remission than those that apply for never-treated patients with epilepsy, or for those whose anticonvulsant treatment has probably been inadequate for various social or historical reasons. Despite the admitted uncertainties inherent in drawing conclusions from such material, there appears to be a reasonably consistent tendency for contemporary anticonvulsant drug treatment to be associated with a greater chance of achieving probable cure of epilepsy. Therefore it would appear premature to take the view that contemporary anticonvulsant drug therapy does no more than suppress epileptic seizures until epilepsy remits spontaneously, or fails to remit, with the passing of time.