Emmetropization in chicks uses optical vergence and relative distance cues to decode defocus

Wildsoet, Christine F. and Schmid, Katrina L. (2001) Emmetropization in chicks uses optical vergence and relative distance cues to decode defocus. Vision Research, 41 24: 3197-3204. doi:10.1016/S0042-6989(01)00177-8

Author Wildsoet, Christine F.
Schmid, Katrina L.
Title Emmetropization in chicks uses optical vergence and relative distance cues to decode defocus
Journal name Vision Research   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0042-6989
Publication date 2001-11
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/S0042-6989(01)00177-8
Volume 41
Issue 24
Start page 3197
End page 3204
Total pages 8
Editor O. Oomon
S. Spekreijse
Place of publication Oxford, United Kingdom
Publisher Pergamon Press
Collection year 2001
Language eng
Subject C1
321016 Opthalmology and Vision Science
730111 Hearing, vision, speech and their disorders
Abstract When visual information is confined to one object plane, the emmetropization end-point is adjusted in accord with the corresponding incident optical vergence at the eye [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Myopia (2000) 113]. We now report the effect of adding extra visual information beyond the target plane. Visual conditions were controlled using a cone-lens system: black Maltese cross targets on white opaque backgrounds (OMX) were attached to the open faces of 2.5 cm translucent cones fitted with either 0, +25 or +40 D imaging lenses. An alternative target (TMX) was made by substituting the opaque target background for a transparent background, which allowed access to visual information beyond the target plane. The imaging devices were applied to 7-day-old chicks and worn for 4 days. Prior to this treatment, on day 2, some chicks underwent ciliary nerve section (CNS) to preclude accommodation. All treatments were monocular. Refractive errors and axial ocular dimensions were measured using retinoscopy and A-scan ultrasonography under halothane anesthesia. Treatment effects were specified as mean ( +/-S.D.) interocular differences. Eyes with the OMX/ + 40 D lens combination remained emmetropic ( +0.73 +/-3.57 D), consistent with the target plane being approximately conjugate with the retina. Switching to the TMX caused a hyperopic shift in refractive error ( + 3.78 +/- 3.41 D). This relative shift towards hyperopia in switching from the OMX to the TMX target also occurred for the other two lens powers. Thus, the OMX/ + 25 D lens induced myopia ( - 7.00 +/-5.88 D), corresponding to the imposed hyperopic defocus (target plane now imaged behind the retina), and switching to the TMX resulted in a reduction in myopia (-1.73 +/-5.36 D), The OMX/0 D lens combination produced the largest myopic shift, and here, switching to the TMX condition almost eliminated the myopic response (-15.50 +/-6.62 D cf. -0.56 +/-1.24 D). This relative hyperopic shift associated with switching from the OMX to the TMX target was eliminated by CNS surgery. Thus, the two CNS/TMX groups were both more myopic than the equivalent no CNS/TMX groups ( + 40 D lens: -2.66 +/-2.34 D; +25 D lens: -7.97 +/-6.87 D). When the visual information is restricted to one plane, incident optical vergence appears to direct emmetropization. Adding Visual information at other distances produces a shift in the end-point of ernmetropization in the direction of the added information. That these effects are dependent on the integrity of the accommodation system implies that accommodation plays a role in emmetropization and represents the first reported evidence of this kind. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.
Keyword Neurosciences
Eye Growth
Refractive Error
Spectacle Lenses
Young Monkeys
Q-Index Code C1

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collection: School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 18 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 22 times in Scopus Article | Citations
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Created: Tue, 14 Aug 2007, 15:36:25 EST