The technique of in situ leach (ISL) uranium mining is well established in the USA, as well as being used extensively in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The method is being proposed and tested on uranium deposits in Australia, with sulfuric acid chemistry and no restoration of groundwater following mining. Test sites in the USA were required to restore groundwater to ascertain the extent of impacts and compare costs to alkaline ISL mines. The problems encountered include expensive and difficult restoration, gypsum precipitation, higher salinity and some heavy metals and radionuclides after restoration. One of the most critical issues is whether natural attenuation is capable of restoring groundwater quality and geochemical conditions in an acid leached aquifer zone. The history of acid ISL sites in the USA and Australia are presented in this study, with a particular focus on the demonstration of restoration of groundwater impacts.