Veterinary drug delivery: Potential for skin penetration enhancement

Magnusson, Beatrice M., Walters, Kenneth A. and Roberts, Michael S. (2001) Veterinary drug delivery: Potential for skin penetration enhancement. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 50 3: 205-227. doi:10.1016/S0169-409X(01)00158-2

Author Magnusson, Beatrice M.
Walters, Kenneth A.
Roberts, Michael S.
Title Veterinary drug delivery: Potential for skin penetration enhancement
Journal name Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0169-409X
Publication date 2001
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.1016/S0169-409X(01)00158-2
Volume 50
Issue 3
Start page 205
End page 227
Total pages 23
Editor V. H. L. Lee
K. L. R. Brouwer
Place of publication Amsterdam
Publisher Elsevier Science
Collection year 2001
Language eng
Subject C1
320503 Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
730117 Skin and related disorders
Abstract A range of topical products are used in veterinary medicine. The efficacy of many of these products has been enhanced by the addition of penetration enhancers. Evolution has led to not only a highly specialized skin in animals and humans, but also one whose anatomical structure and skin permeability differ between the various species. The skin provides an excellent barrier against the ingress of environmental contaminants, toxins, and microorganisms while performing a homeostatic role to permit terrestrial life. Over the past few years, major advances have been made in the field of transdermal drug delivery. An increasing number of drugs are being added to the list of therapeutic agents that can be delivered via the skin to the systemic circulation where clinically effective concentrations are reached. The therapeutic benefits of topically applied veterinary products is achieved in spite of the inherent protective functions of the stratum corneum (SQ, one of which is to exclude foreign substances from entering the body. Much of the recent success in this field is attributable to the rapidly expanding knowledge of the SC barrier structure and function. The bilayer domains of the intercellular lipid matrices within the SC form an excellent penetration barrier, which must be breached if poorly penetrating drugs are to be administered at an appropriate rate. One generalized approach to overcoming the barrier properties of the skin for drugs and biomolecules is the incorporation of suitable vehicles or other chemical compounds into a transdermal delivery system. Indeed, the incorporation of such compounds has become more prevalent and is a growing trend in transdermal drug delivery. Substances that help promote drug diffusion through the SC and epidermis are referred to as penetration enhancers, accelerants, adjuvants, or sorption promoters. It is interesting to note that many pour-on and spot-on formulations used in veterinary medicine contain inert ingredients (e.g., alcohols, amides, ethers, glycols, and hydrocarbon oils) that will act as penetration enhancers. These substances have the potential to reduce the capacity for drug binding and interact with some components of the skin, thereby improving drug transport. However, their inclusion in veterinary products with a high-absorbed dose may result in adverse dermatological reactions (e.g., toxicological irritations) and concerns about tissue residues. These a-re important considerations when formulating a veterinary transdermal product when such compounds ate added, either intentionally or otherwise, for their penetration enhancement ability. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Keyword Pharmacology & Pharmacy
Penetration Enhancers
Animal Health
Transdermal Drug Delivery
Absorption Enhancement
Hairless Mouse Skin
Shed Snake Skin
Transdermal Delivery
Human Epidermis
Rat Skin
Comparative Pharmacokinetics
Q-Index Code C1

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collection: School of Medicine Publications
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 69 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
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Created: Tue, 14 Aug 2007, 15:12:38 EST