PURPOSE: To report a case of delayed rectus muscle hemorrhage after strabismus surgery. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: Rectus muscle hemorrhage occurred 36 hours after strabismus surgery in a 26-year-old man, causing temporary loss of vision and reduced ocular motility. Urgent lateral cantholysis and orbital exploration to restore hemostasis were undertaken. Full recovery of vision occurred and a small residual motility disturbance was present 3 months postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Delayed rectus muscle hemorrhage post-strabismus surgery is rare but can have sight-threatening effects. When vision is threatened because of optic nerve compromise, urgent orbital exploration may allow full recovery of function. (Am J Ophthalmol 2001;131: 818-819, (C) 2001 by Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.).